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14

In this case, 「[近]{ちか}い」 and 「[遠]{とお}い」 express temporal intervals and not spatial distances -- "at shorter intervals" and "at longer intervals", respectively. 「[尿]{にょう}が近い」 means "having the tendency of urinating frequently". 「尿が遠い」 means the opposite of that -- "not having to pee very often". We also say 「トイレが近い/遠い」 to mean the same thing.


8

It's [熟字訓]{じゅくじくん}. Excerpt from Wiktionary: A Japanese word whose kanji spelling conveys the meaning based on the individual characters, but the reading is not directly related to the spellling. For example, 大 (“big”, usually read ō in kun'yomi compounds) and 人 (“person”, usually read hito in kun'yomi compounds) combine to form 大人, meaning “adult” but ...


5

It comes from Classical Japanese idiomatic phrase とにかくに, analyzed into と ("some way") + に ("in") + かく ("that way; such a way") + に ("in"), and as a whole meant for "by some means or other" or "by any means". The kanji you may often see (兎に角) is ateji.


2

Just to respond to the question part, the origin of the "emphatic" ない is the Classical suffix 「なし」, and not 「なり」. http://kobun.weblio.jp/content/%E3%81%AA%E3%81%97 「なし」 is an adjective-forming suffix with the meanings of "truly ~~", "extremely ~~", etc. It needs to be noted again that this has nothing to do with 「[無]{な}し」.  



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