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In this case, 「[近]{ちか}い」 and 「[遠]{とお}い」 express temporal intervals and not spatial distances -- "at shorter intervals" and "at longer intervals", respectively. 「[尿]{にょう}が近い」 means "having the tendency of urinating frequently". 「尿が遠い」 means the opposite of that -- "not having to pee very often". We also say 「トイレが近い/遠い」 to mean the same thing.


It's [熟字訓]{じゅくじくん}. Excerpt from Wiktionary: A Japanese word whose kanji spelling conveys the meaning based on the individual characters, but the reading is not directly related to the spellling. For example, 大 (“big”, usually read ō in kun'yomi compounds) and 人 (“person”, usually read hito in kun'yomi compounds) combine to form 大人, meaning “adult” but ...


It comes from Classical Japanese idiomatic phrase とにかくに, analyzed into と ("some way") + に ("in") + かく ("that way; such a way") + に ("in"), and as a whole meant for "by some means or other" or "by any means". The kanji you may often see (兎に角) is ateji.


Just to respond to the question part, the origin of the "emphatic" ない is the Classical suffix 「なし」, and not 「なり」. http://kobun.weblio.jp/content/%E3%81%AA%E3%81%97 「なし」 is an adjective-forming suffix with the meanings of "truly ~~", "extremely ~~", etc. It needs to be noted again that this has nothing to do with 「[無]{な}し」.  

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