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8

Please note that the nature of writing using Chinese script often makes it impossible to know how the word was originally pronounced. Generally the only real way of knowing is by having glosses written in kana. In Old Japanese, neither hiragana nor katakana were yet invented, though man'yoogana does indicate the pronunciation. That said, I can only find ...


6

Much as described in the question comments by Yang Muye and blutorange, 1) all of these sumu verbs derive from Old Japanese in ways that make the kanji irrelevant to a discussion of etymology, and 2) all of the modern senses of sumu arise from an underlying idea of to settle. Interestingly, the English term to settle covers most of the same meanings as the ...


5

Something similar happened in English, where "you", a formerly polite form which contrasted with "thou", is now the common second person pronoun with no inherent politeness. It's a kind of semantic change called pejoration. In a society which values politeness, people will use a word B which sounds nicer/more polite than the usual word A. Once everybody ...


4

As noted in the question comments, the kanji 円 was originally 圓. The nutshell version of the article Yang Muye linked is that monks developed a shorthand version of 圓 that looked like a box with a vertical line through it: . Over time, the shape of the surrounding box changed, likely due to the same anatomical and mechanical processes that inform any ...


4

It's short for 電気【でんき】スタンド, which we can see in sense ② in Daijirin: ②「電気スタンド」の略【りゃく】。 Here, 略 means "abbreviation". And of course, 電気{でんき} means both "electricity" and "[electric] light". Why does 電気 have this meaning? Well, most dictionaries don't say, and I suppose this could be simple metonymy, but when we look up 電気 in 日本国語大辞典, we find: ...


4

Since no-one else has tried to answer, I'll write up a few thoughts in the hope of attracting a more knowledgeable person, Somebody Is Wrong On The Internet style. I do not think there is any single, universally accepted name for this form. Sometimes you see the term "ri adverb" (in Japanese, "り副詞"), but this often encompasses 3-mora adverbs too (yahari as ...


3

Taken from here: 杜撰の「杜」は、中国宋の杜黙(ともく)という詩人を表し、「撰」は詩文を作ることで、杜黙の作った詩は律(詩の様式)に合わないものが多かったという故事に由来するという、中国の「野客叢書(やかくそうしょ)」の説が有力とされる。日本には禅を通じて入ったとされ、古くは「ずざん(づざん)」と言われた。 Translation: The 杜{ず} of 杜撰{ずさん} represents the poet 杜黙{ともく} from the Song Dynasty. 撰{さん} represents making poems. The poems made by 杜黙{ともく} often did not fit the metre, and this act is ...



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