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As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


There are various agent suffixes or just plain nouns that get used in Japanese, as opposed to the one straightforward -er suffix in English. You've mentioned a few, but all with the on'yomi -- the kun'yomi get used too for at least the following: 手 shu in on'yomi compounds, te in kun'yomi compounds 選手 senshu -- "chosen hand" → player chosen to be on a ...


To the best of my knowledge there are none. Infixes are really pretty rare crosslinguistically, so it's not that surprising. English's expletive ones are pretty unusual even by English's standards, and as far as I know they're not particularly productive (I can't think of too many words you're actually allowed to use them with).


The only one I can think of, if it can be called an infix, is [兼]{けん} as in: [書斎兼応接間]{しょさいけんおうせつま} - a room used for both study and for receiving vistors or [総理大臣兼外務大臣]{そうりだいじんけんがいむだいじん} - (be both) Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs But as it has been pointed out, prefixes and suffixes are much more common in Japanese. One might ask ...


From Natsuko Tsujimura's An Introduction to Japanese Linguistics, page 148: Infixes are bound morphemes that are inserted in the middle of a word rather than being placed before or after it. Japanese does not have any examples of infixes. (emphasis added)


Not sure if it's quite the same thing linguistically, but you sometimes see なんか used with negative forms of adjectives or in て form + negative. 欲しくない → 欲しくなんかない 待ってないんだから → 待ってなんかないんだから!


What about っ (the "little tsu") and ん? For example: やはり → やっぱり・やっぱし よほど → よっぽど あまり → あんまり・あんまし みな → みんな These seem, to me at least, to be similar to English colloquialisms (e.g., hizouse, saxomaphone).

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