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We can find several patterns in these derivations: Long words are often clipped: ハーモニー   → ハーモ スターバックス → スターバ サボタージュ  → サボ Long vowels (with ー) and geminate consonants (with ッ) are shortened: グーグル    → ググル コピー     → コピ ハーモ     → ハモ スターバ    → スタバ パニック    → パニク If final ル is already present, it is reanalyzed as る: ググル     → ググる ...


As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


The わ in these words is actually the 未然形 of the 継続の助動詞「ふ」, which historically attached to the 未然形 of other verbs. In this case, the combination of 嘆く and ふ formed the verb 嘆かふ, and the combination of 忌む with ふ produced 忌まふ. It is these words that combined with the し suffix: 嘆かふ  →  嘆かは + し 忌まふ  →  忌まは + し In modern Japanese, the は becomes わ, and ...


I think that it is rare to use the words such as A子 and B子 as an abbreviation. They are placeholder names for females, and they do not usually mean that the names actually end with 子. Just like suffix 子, suffix 男 (such as A男) is often used to make placeholder names for males. (Here is a random example which uses A男 and B子.) Some people use letters with 子 ...


There are various agent suffixes or just plain nouns that get used in Japanese, as opposed to the one straightforward -er suffix in English. You've mentioned a few, but all with the on'yomi -- the kun'yomi get used too for at least the following: 手 shu in on'yomi compounds, te in kun'yomi compounds 選手 senshu -- "chosen hand" → player chosen to be on a ...


1 When you're walking and your shoelaces come undone, they appear to do that on their own. 靴ひもがほどける does not mean that someone unties them, but that they "untie themselves". The meaning is closer to an intransitive active than to a passive; therefore にくい is appropriate. On the other hand, 問題が解ける means that the problem is solved by someone, not that it solves ...


The first そう comes after 終止形 of verbs and adjectives. All 終止形 forms, negatives, passives, causatives, present and past etc are possible. This means "I hear(d)/read that... " (not looks/seems like as assumed in the question). 彼は死んだそうだ I heard he died あのケーキは美味しいそうだ I hear that cake is declicious 彼は嫌われていなかったそうだ They say he wasn't hated. This そう is ...


やがる is a 助動詞 (auxiliary verb). 活用形 is used to refer to the conjugated form of a word. やがる is used to state the action of the opponent with emotion of scorn or dislike. From Yahoo dictionary: 軽蔑や憎しみなどの気持ちを込めて、相手の動作をいう意を表す It is used after the 連用形 of verbs, and 「れる」「られる」「せる」「させる」.


To the best of my knowledge there are none. Infixes are really pretty rare crosslinguistically, so it's not that surprising. English's expletive ones are pretty unusual even by English's standards, and as far as I know they're not particularly productive (I can't think of too many words you're actually allowed to use them with).


The only one I can think of, if it can be called an infix, is [兼]{けん} as in: [書斎兼応接間]{しょさいけんおうせつま} - a room used for both study and for receiving vistors or [総理大臣兼外務大臣]{そうりだいじんけんがいむだいじん} - (be both) Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs But as it has been pointed out, prefixes and suffixes are much more common in Japanese. One might ask ...


I will go in conjecture mode here, as I do not have the knowledge of the validity in question. (Question 1) Why is ほどけにくい acceptable while とけにくい unacceptable? I guess that it's related to the subject. A shoelace, in English too, gets loose and unties itself. The shoelace can do the action of untying itself, with ease or not, hence the (claimed) ...


From Natsuko Tsujimura's An Introduction to Japanese Linguistics, page 148: Infixes are bound morphemes that are inserted in the middle of a word rather than being placed before or after it. Japanese does not have any examples of infixes. (emphasis added)


Not sure if it's quite the same thing linguistically, but you sometimes see なんか used with negative forms of adjectives or in て form + negative. 欲しくない → 欲しくなんかない 待ってないんだから → 待ってなんかないんだから!


What about っ (the "little tsu") and ん? For example: やはり → やっぱり・やっぱし よほど → よっぽど あまり → あんまり・あんまし みな → みんな These seem, to me at least, to be similar to English colloquialisms (e.g., hizouse, saxomaphone).


Straight from jawiki on カム/神: "カムヤマトイワレヒコ、カムアタツヒメなどの複合語で「神」が「カム」となっていることから、「神」は古くは「カム」かそれに近い音だったことが推定される。大野晋や森重敏などは、ï の古い形として *ui と *oi を推定しており、これによれば kamï は古くは *kamui となる。"

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