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12

In conversation, you switch between あの and その depending on whether or not the subject is known by both of the speakers, or only one. 話し手も相手も共通に知っている場合 ー>「あ」 When both the speaker and listener know the subject -> "あ" どちらか一方が知っている場合 ー> 「そ」 When only the speaker or listener knows the subject -> "そ" For example: A: ...


12

あそこ (expected あこ) There was an ako. From the 1775 text 物類称呼 (Iwanami Bunko ISBN4-00-302691-8 p. 146): あそこ こゝといふを 西國にて・あんなけ こんなけと云 肥前にて・そこねい こゝねいと云 尾州にて・あそこなて こゝなてと云 京にて・あこと云 However, there are ample usages of asoko in much earlier works from the 13th century and on, so this is likely an abbreviation of asoko > ako. Historically, in Old Japanese ...


7

The historical answer to this still appears to be somewhat of a mystery. However, there is speculation on why the あ (of the こそあど) appears to be irregular. Nomichi Sumire gives a hint in this answer as to why あ is different. 「ここ・そこ・あそこ・どこ」 were all written in Kanji in the past, like this: 「此処・其処・彼処・何処」 When written out in Kanji, all of the words appear to ...


5

その中に would mean "to within that [selection of apartments]". Kind of nonsensical. その中で would mean "at within that [selection of apartments]". Also kind of nonsensical. その中から means "from within that [selection of apartments]". Clunky because literal translations are clunky, but the logic is there. The whole sentence: 私はその中から好きな家を借りました。 "I rented an ...


5

OK I posted this as a comment because I wasn't 100% sure of the correctness but to escape the "post answers as answers" problem I'll just say it here. So here you've got a speaker referring to this fella マルス. He's quite far removed from the current setting, it seems, or perhaps metaphorically distant as in on a different level as the wielder of the ...


5

I think この usually implies some quality of “me”. You can translate it as “someone like me”. You can insert some adjectives between この and <first person pronoun>. Usually it sounds proud or arrogant, especially in このオレさま. フン、この(偉大なる)ヤング様に勝負を挑むなど、百年早いわ! 天才美少女であるこのアタシが教えてあげるんだから、ありがたく思いなさい! But as Hyperworm pointed out, it can be used in exactly the ...


5

A 格助詞【かくじょし】 or "case-marking particle" is a particle that attaches to a noun form to mark how the word relates to the rest of the sentence or clause. There are several, including ~は, ~が, ~を, etc. ~の is a confusing one because there are several different particles all pronounced 「の」, but in this case, I believe it marks the genitive case, generally used ...


5

I think there is little difference between 犯罪者のこと and 犯罪者. I think user54609's explanation is nice. 罪人:犯罪者のこと basically means 罪人は犯罪者のことだ, 罪人は犯罪者のことを指す or 犯罪者のことを罪人という. You explain 罪人 by rephrasing it saying 犯罪者. つまり~のこと is a very frequent expression used to rephrase what just has been said. AはBのことだ basically means A means B or A refers to B. You can't ...


4

Here's the skinny. あ, こ, and そ are each technically pronouns on their own. Usually we see them in conjunction with a particle. In this case, it's connected to the case marking particle (格助詞) "の". A case-marking particle is a particle that indicates the grammatical case, or basically the function of the thing it's modifying. So for example の can mark the ...


4

For time related events you'd usually あの if you are introducing the topic: 覚えてますか?あのとき… Oboetemasu ka? Ano toki… If the topic was already broached, you'd use その to refer to the already introduced time: はい、その話覚えてます。 Hai, sono hanashi oboetemasu. If you keep using あの over and over in the same conversation for the same topic, it can seem weird. If ...


4

Well, if you use the kanjis, you see the pattern even better! 此れ、 其れ、 彼、 何れ 此の、 其の、 彼の、 何の 此処、 其処、 彼処、 何処 From there, the suffixes "れ"、 "の"、 and "こ" indicate whether you're talking about a thing, a "possessive", or a location. The prefixes are, as you had guessed, the "distance": close, somehow far, far, and the question "which". So, "これ" is the close ...


3

In 2., こちら is the focus, not a topic, and is new information. You cannot use は for it. 東です is the old information. Your reasoning of "present in the universe of discourse" is irrelevant for the choice of these particles (and, actually, I don't understand what you are talking about). The information structure is the following. After A's question, before B's ...


3

Your explanation of sono and ano in terms of places is correct. as far as when dealing with time this is how it seems to me. あの時 - This one time その時 - At that time so その時 gets used when it is a continuation of previous topic, whereas あの時 would be more of a introducing a topic.


3

私はその中から好きな家を借りました I chose a house I liked from this set. 私はその中に好きな家を借りました I chose a house I liked, and rented it from this middle (i.e., the set is the owner, because Aに借りる means you're borrowing from A). It's nonsensical, because 中 is not even something singular you can borrow from. 私はその中で好きな家を借りました And when I was inside it, I picked up a ...


3

"The guy standing here in front of you" "This guy here" "The guy you're looking at" "This guy" "Me here" Update Some clarification as noted by the commenters. Yes, オレ and 僕 or course refer to the speaker. So the question is, what is the nuance introduced by the demonstrative adjective この? It is "this me", as opposed to some other "me", such as a "me" ...


2

I think the thing lies in the clearer use-mention distinction Japanese has. The letters 「罪人」 are not by themselves a 犯罪者, but it refers to 犯罪者, thus the のこと.


2

In the 大辞泉 context, the distinction of a person from "こと" seems like separating the criminal person from the guilt. Here, "こと" represents an abstract concept of guilt or the fact of the crime. In the 「友人のこと」 context, the noun "こと" is used in a quite different way as just a cushion. The combination 「X のことを Y 扱いする」 is common, but it has almost the same ...



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