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If you look up this word, 言う, in a dictionary of old Japanese, the first two meanings are: 1) 言葉で表現する。話す。 2) 名付ける。呼ぶ。 (全訳古語辞典第三版／旺文社) One point I think that is worth pointing out here is that Japanese does not use explicit passive constructions as you do in English. Consider this illustrative sentence. この家は父が立てました。 This house was ...
I think that the second example, "これという問題はない", means: the "so-called" problem doesn´t exist. I would appreciate if you could give us the context.
I don't have any authoritative reference for now, but I think the definition you provided has room for improvement. ギタギタ/ギッタギタ/ギタンギタン/etc is a mimetic word which describes the status of someone severely beat up by a fight. More common synonyms are "けちょんけちょん" and "こてんぱん". These can also be metaphorically used for one-sided arguments/debates/games. I have not ...
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