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By "older brother", I assume you mean お兄さん. By "older sister, I assume you mean お姉さん. If so, then this is one type of way of referring to men/boys and women/girls who are not so old as to merit おじさん おじいさん おばさん おばあさん. I was a bit surprised at this mode of reference the first time someone did it to me, but it's pretty common. It does not necessarily imply ...


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I think there's a lot of variation between speakers. Even as a foreigner at a university, I have met various types of speakers: never use teineigo at all, even though I'm clearly older people who use keigo for a few minutes and switch when I reply in casual form (most common) people who use keigo for weeks, and say it's uncomfortable to use casual form ...


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In general, fury is usually associated with fire/flame in Japanese, too. There are many figurative set phrases like "怒りの炎", "怒りに燃え上がる", or "怒りで爆発する", and so on. Now, 絶対零度の怒り is not an established idiom, and I think its interpretation should depend on the context. This phrase would at least mean 'extreme/strong anger' because it sounds stronger than simple ...


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I assume you are looking for a Japanese equivalent of "ceterum censeo" and are not looking for an equivalent of "Carthaginem esse delendam" (or "Cartago delenda est" if sticking to the indicative.) My answer is: there is something remotely resembles to that expression, but the usage is different (not that "serious," I would say.) It goes like ...


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In my experience, the nature of the relationship and the nature of the communication are both important for knowing when/how to use the plain form and to knowing what the use of plain form signals. In written workplace communication, I never see plain form (I work at a university). In written personal communications (things like Facebook or IM), I rarely ...


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Whenever it feels right. This is probably not the answer you were looking for, so here are my observations: If it's anything work related, or official, you stick to the polite language, no matter how well you know the person you are talking to. As soon as you are doing something else in your private life, let's say having a beer together, it's okay to use ...


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In my personal experience, the transition from polite to plain form is done spontaneously, specifically if you are of the same age level or same position (at work). A month or two after your introduction, you may switch to plain form if there are no inhibitions from your part of any kind, or you have done a milestone together (project closure, etc) . ...


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I think the teacher would generally just include their first names as part of the address, e.g. … 浅野さん 東健太郎君 東良一君 藤田君 … (But sharing the same family name isn't just a problem for twins. If you're called 木村, 田中, 山田, 佐藤, 斎藤, or similar, chances that someone in your class shares your family name are higher than usual. My guess would be that two ...



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