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1

つ is a counter word (for generic inanimate objects), so that 七 (なな) "[the number] seven" 七つ (ななつ) "seven [objects]" Similarly you have 七日 (なのか) "the seventh [day of the month]" 七本 (ななほん) "seven [longish objects]" and many many more. Depending on the counter, the numbers may not be based on the native Japanese numbers (hito, futa, mi, ..., ...


2

Think like this: All nouns in Japanese are uncountable. You can't count apples any more than you count water or light. Thus under Japanese grammar you always have to say "two 'objects' of apple", "four 'sticks' of banana" and "seven 'bodies' of dog", as if they are "two bottles of water" or "four rays of light" etc. りんご一つ/一個 an object of apple = an ...


1

Without using counters, in general, you can't make it sure if it's trying to express natural numbers or ordinal ones. りんごを 一つ ください is valid because 一つ is an adverb here. リンゴ一つを ください is also valid because リンゴ一つ is a compound noun this time.


2

The following Wikipedia article on Japanese counter word explains well about how the counter words or counters (josūshi 助数詞) work in Japanese. In Japanese, as in Chinese and Korean, numerals cannot quantify nouns by themselves (except, in certain cases, for the numbers from one to ten; see below). For example, to express the idea "two dogs" in ...


3

The first one means The themes of the second talk are love and despair. The second one means The themes of the two talks are love and despair → implying either 1) that one talk is about love, and the other is about despair, or 2) they are both about both love and despair.


4

That である after 一品 is not "exists" but "is" (ie, it's the copula, not a normal verb). Have you seen expressions like these? 食べたのは5個です。 It is five that I ate. 来たのは3人だけでした。 It was only three who came. それを聞いたのは1回だけだよ。 I heard it only once. These are cleft sentences where the number part is focused. They are natural and common expressions, and can be safely ...


5

The thing is translating words for words never works (at least from English to Japanese). Here you put watashi no kazoku as your theme. The notion of theme can be roughly rendered here as follows: "As for my family". Then, you describe the theme by saying: roku-nin kazoku desu (it's a family with 6 persons). So what you are saying is: "As for my family, it ...



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