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10

Let's start with something common: 夢は夢だ。 'Dreams are dreams.' Let's negate it (using ではない instead of its contracted form じゃない): 夢は夢ではない。 'Dreams are not dreams.' は is a 係助詞{かかりじょし} ("binding particle"). Any 係助詞 fits in this spot. しか is also a 係助詞: 夢は夢でしかない。'Dreams are nothing but dreams.' The "modern" grammatical analysis of this stuff is ...


8

First, let me comment on your three examples: です ⇔ であります We discussed です before. According to 大辞林, there are several theories, but we don't know its etymology for sure. This is one of the three theories it lists, though. I've read that でございます may be more likely, but I never read an explanation why, so I won't make that assertion here. じゃない ⇔ ...


6

I think 好き was originally a noun derived from 好く, but then it came to be used as a na-adjective as well. In fact, most na-adjectives derive from nouns (and some people consider them to still be nouns). The following quote is from Origins of the Verbalizer Affixes in the Japonic Languages by Tyler Lau: Uehara (2003) provides a compelling argument for ...


5

If you were to say 夢は夢しかない then it would have a meaning of something like "dreams have nothing but dreams." It's the simple ~は~が construction you learn in Japanese 101 to describe a particular feature of a subject. This is not a copula. As you mention, you should be looking at it in terms of である. If you take out the しか you'll have the normal copula 夢は夢ではない, ...


3

You could have guessed it, but そっくり can be used as na-adjective (形容動詞). E.g. お父さんにそっくりな顔でびっくりしました。 His face was so much like his dad's I was shocked. 昌吉にそっくりな性格だね。 He's so much like Shoukichi. 自分(に/と)そっくりなキャラクターを作りました。 I created a character that looked just like me. More examples at Space ALC. This does happen often with words ...


3

As noel_lapin mostly answered, this form of sentence does not assume any implicit question. I don't know the grammatical classification that describes this use, but "もらうのだった" has a sense of repeated occurrences that became customary, that they have always done so, not just in this particular occasion. It is a particularly common form of speech for old story ...


2

This だ is a copula. It's a plain form of the copula - copula has similar forms as verbs. You may know its polite form as well - です (warning though - です is not only a copula, it may also be just a marker of polite speech level). それはとってもいい話です。 is the polite version of the same sentence. Copula doesn't really act on the noun, rather it links the subject それ ...


2

I think the confusion arises because です can both replace だ as the copula (行きたかったんです), or simply mark politeness (行きたかったです). The correction you received has little to do with a grammatical need for だ or です in a sentence, but rather the two improved versions sound more natural. Grammatically speaking, ドイツはいちども行ったことがないから、ずっと行きたかった。 is perfectly fine. ...


2

い adjective + です was originally a slang used by people who were not familiar with standard Japanese and only recently (1952) officially accepted. Still now, it's not considered really sophisticated, in my oppinion. Only おいしゅうございます etc were correct until then. And there is a comment that says it's standard in Tohoku dialect, but that is not true at all. ...



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