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10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


9

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


4

だ can be dropped after i-adj because the final い in i-adj, or its conjugations, carries the same meaning as the copula itself. In na-adj, the final な--used as a link from the adjective to nouns or noun phrases--is etymologically derived from the copula. ( In 古語, the link is more easily understood. Changes to the language overtime obfuscated the connection, ...


2

When there is no copula and nothing seems to be omitted, as in your second example, I interpret the sentence as simply a fragment, used to "set the scene", and would translate it as such. It is very reminiscent of how fragments are used in descriptive passages in English: Pale druggists in remote towns of the Epworth League and flannel nightgown belts, ...



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