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10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


7

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


6

It's used for politeness. Here's what Martin writes in his 1975 Reference Grammar of Japanese, p.603: Sometimes the perfect is used more for politeness than for time reference: あなたはどなたでした = お名前は何とおっしゃいましたか ‘What did you say your name was?’ (when the person has actually not yet said); 判子をお持ちでしたね ‘You have your chop (= signature-seal) ...


5

You're right, this is a form of だ. You're probably used to seeing な following na-adjectives. It can be considered the form of だ that appears before nouns: キレイだ    ←  Here, だ ends a clause. キレイな花   ←  Here, だ changes to な before the noun 花. But when だ follows a regular noun, it typically doesn't take the な form. The main exception is when it ...


5

How about using the English copula in this case too? "And there was Hanako, lost for words to comfort her sister, Kayo" Or in the case of the second, "the" could work too: "The ever evolving convenience store: with 40 years since its inception, blah blah blah" As for meaning, it doesn't mean anything special per se, but to me it feels "defining" for lack ...


4

だ can be dropped after i-adj because the final い in i-adj, or its conjugations, carries the same meaning as the copula itself. In na-adj, the final な--used as a link from the adjective to nouns or noun phrases--is etymologically derived from the copula. ( In 古語, the link is more easily understood. Changes to the language overtime obfuscated the connection, ...


4

When you read that で is the 連用形 of 断定の助動詞「だ」, that's a reanalysis. That is, from a modern perspective it makes sense to talk about it that way, and you should be familiar with the concept if for no other reason than to understand dictionary entries. But that doesn't mean that's how it came about historically. Of course だ is contracted from である, and ...


4

When you have never met someone (or have no way of knowing the person, e.g. on the phone), どちら様ですか is how to enquire for someone's name/identity. When the circumstances/your memory suggest that you have met before, but you simply don't recall who they are, どちら様でしたか is more natural. (Note that, by extension, you can also use どちら様でしたか in the first case by ...


2

When there is no copula and nothing seems to be omitted, as in your second example, I interpret the sentence as simply a fragment, used to "set the scene", and would translate it as such. It is very reminiscent of how fragments are used in descriptive passages in English: Pale druggists in remote towns of the Epworth League and flannel nightgown belts, ...


2

The particle construction ~(な)のに expresses the adversative, i.e. in English (al)though, even though, etc. The の in ~のに and ~なのに is a suffix that functions as a nominalizer. の turns any inflected expression into a noun, and なの does the some for expressions that cannot be inflected. This happens in order to make the attachment of grammatical markers possible ...


1

I really don't quite understand which part of the fantastic answer on the linked question you don't understand. I'll try to add some notes. である is for all practical purposes a copula (like だ). This means in particular that your sentence structure will consist of a topic/subject and a predicating noun phrase. The topics/subject may be marked by は/が/も; the ...



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