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10

だ is not the plain form of です. They're related, but you can't use だ everywhere you can use です, so calling one the plain form of the other doesn't work. です has two functions: As a polite copula, similar to だ: りんごだ → りんごです (noun) きれいだ → きれいです (na-adj) As a politeness marker, following i-adjs: うつくしい → うつくしいです (i-adj) i-adjs form complete ...


8

I think there is a slight difference in what the uncertainty is about: … 六十五歳を過ぎ、<unsure>体力的な衰えを感じはじめた</unsure>だろう頃だ。 … <unsure>六十五歳を過ぎ、体力的な衰えを感じはじめた頃</unsure>だろう。 In #1, the uncertainty is less about the actual time frame, and more about what their physical condition had been. In #2, it seems that the uncertainty is ...


6

独身{どくしん} で ハンサム だから ね Without further context it's hard to tell who is the subject/object of this phrase, but it shall be read: It's because だから someone is single and... どくしんで handsome ハンサム


4

だ can be dropped after i-adj because the final い in i-adj, or its conjugations, carries the same meaning as the copula itself. In na-adj, the final な--used as a link from the adjective to nouns or noun phrases--is etymologically derived from the copula. ( In 古語, the link is more easily understood. Changes to the language overtime obfuscated the connection, ...


4

たとえ{おまえ自身が(強く記録し、その復活を望んだ)→}人間がいたとしてもだ。 たとえ~としてもだ means "(the aforementioned sentence is true) Even if ...". たとえ is optional. Example: 何も喋るな。たとえ聞かれてもだ。 (≒ たとえ聞かれても、何も喋るな。) Don't say anything. Even if you're asked. その復活を望んだ人間がいた refers to B: the person whose revival you desired. Depending on the context, 復活を望む人間 by itself can mean "someone who ...


2

Simply put, じゃろ and じゃろう are だろ and だろう, but in another dialect. Other forms include やろ and やろう. If you're wondering how they could all come about, they originally come from であろう. In ancient times, some dialects (including the standard, I believe) pronounced で what would be written as じぇ now, and so their であろう contracted naturally to じゃろう. やろう comes from ...


2

Parse it as 麗子は[{(良人の親友であり、)(たびたびこの家へも遊びに来た)(元気な)青年将校}の顔]を思い浮べた。 「良人の親友であり*」「たびたびこの家へも遊びに来た」 and 「元気な」 all modify 「青年将校」. *であり is the continuative form of である. (良人の親友である)青年将校 -> (良人の親友であり、)(たびたびこの家にも遊びに来た)青年将校 or, (良人の親友で*、)(たびたびこの家にも遊びに来た)青年将校 *であり sounds more literary than で. eg. (かわいい)女の子 -> (かわいくて)(優しい)女の子 (きれいな)お姉さん -> (きれいで)(優しい)お姉さん (医者である)父 ...


2

[one or more factors that make one popular etc.]だからね This is a common phrase to acknowledge someone for being pretty good in some way (popular, smart, etc.) either in front of them or when gossiping about them. It's basically "It makes sense how he's popular with women when you know that he's single and handsome." Japanese people fill in that sentence ...



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