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How about using the English copula in this case too? "And there was Hanako, lost for words to comfort her sister, Kayo" Or in the case of the second, "the" could work too: "The ever evolving convenience store: with 40 years since its inception, blah blah blah" As for meaning, it doesn't mean anything special per se, but to me it feels "defining" for lack ...


3

When you read that で is the 連用形 of 断定の助動詞「だ」, that's a reanalysis. That is, from a modern perspective it makes sense to talk about it that way, and you should be familiar with the concept if for no other reason than to understand dictionary entries. But that doesn't mean that's how it came about historically. Of course だ is contracted from である, and ...


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The particle construction ~(な)のに expresses the adversative, i.e. in English (al)though, even though, etc. The の in ~のに and ~なのに is a suffix that functions as a nominalizer. の turns any inflected expression into a noun, and なの does the some for expressions that cannot be inflected. This happens in order to make the attachment of grammatical markers possible ...



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