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10

Not all complements are direct objects. Let's look at each language, one by one: English I am Hana. Be is an intransitive copular verb, here in its form am. It takes Hana as a copular complement, but that complement is not a direct object. Instead, it's what is traditionally known as a "subject complement", sometimes called a "predicative ...


9

ばかり【bakari】 is a 副助詞 (adverbial particle), which is derived from the 連用形 (-masu stem) of the verb はかる. But the particle (and 連用形 in general) behaves much like a noun. (Join to other noun-like words with の, make into a predicate by adding だ, etc.) Now you essentially have a noun phrase 食べたばかり. To make a sentence out of this, you have to add だ・です (or だった・でした ...


6

I would like to add a clarification to user4092's answer: In English, present tense verbs are changed to past tense in reported speech. "My mum said it was fun" would mean that she said she had fun as the activity was going on. If this is what you meant, then the Japanese sentence below is the answer: English direct speech: My mum said, "This is fun!" ...


5

Basically, the casual form is ~だからだ and its polite form is ~だからです. e.g. ネコだからだ(よ)。 人間だからです。 坊やだからさ。 The から is a 接続助詞(conjunctive particle), definition #1 in デジタル大辞泉: 2⃣ [接助]活用語の終止形に付く。 1 理由・原因を表す。「もう遅いから帰ろう」 (attached to the predicative form of 活用語. 1. indicates a reason or cause.) The から needs to be attached to the predicative form such ...


1

As you said, “だ” is a colloquial form of “です,” a predicate meaning “is, am,” and "食べたばかりだ” means “I’ve finished meal just now.” “だ” here functions as I am in the state of having finished meal just now.


1

No, you don't need it. But you should translate "my mom" to "(watashi-no) haha" and "it was fun" to "tanoshikatta", as a whole "(watashi-no) haha-wa tanoshikatta-to itta".



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