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けれども is a contradictory conjugation expressing something along the lines of "but" or "however." The ど/ども part in this expression is the part that expresses the contradiction. By a means of shortening one's speech (through laziness, etc.) the different forms came into usage. The shortening is analogous to contractions in English (cannot -> can't). As such, ...


4

けど is the short form of けれども, which could be written け(れ)ど(も), because all of けれども, けれど, けども, けど are used. けども is what, in my experience, is often used in a half formal, half informal setting. It is more refined than けど, but not quite as stiff as けれども.


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In meaning, 「ものだから」=「ので」 and the two are interchangeable. Both express a reason or cause. I would recommend that you learn 「ものだから」 as a unit, but if you have to parse it, it is like this: 「もの」 is a dummy noun. It is needed to connect 「[刺]{さ}した」 and 「だ」grammatically.  「だ」 is an affirmation auxiliary verb. 「から」 is a conjunctive particle. Thus, ...


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You must be either reading too much into this or seeing something that is just not there, both of which could easily occur in foreign language study. When a sentence ends with 「~~からである」, it can only express a reason or cause for an event/situation that is described in the previous sentence(s) -- most often, in the sentence immediately before the one ending ...


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「どうも[人]{ひと}に[馬鹿]{ばか}にされていけない。[親]{おや}にまで馬鹿にされるからいけない」 The translation that your book gives you for the last half is: "And I particularly do not like being looked down on by my own father." In this case, the "particularly" part of the translation is NOT literal. It is, however, contextually clearly implied. The first half tells us that the ...



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