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15

と and や are used to connect two or more nouns. Most of the time, と can only be used for a fixed number of items like: "キーボードとマウスいる". (we need) keyboard and mouse But や is used when there is a variable/unknown length like: "キーボードやマウス、そしてLANケーブルとかいるかも" (we need) keyboard, mouse and probably LAN cables also. Also や has some sense for ...


15

I find the best way to discriminate between these two is the following: ~ので marks an objective cause: 電車が遅れたので、間に合わなかった。 The fact that the train ran late is an objective, verifiable fact. The emphasis of the sentence is not so much on the cause as it is on the effect (or the sentence as a whole). ~から marks a subjective cause: 彼女はこれが好きそうだから、買ってあげよう。 The ...


13

Suffice it to say, there are a lot more ways to join words or phrases together in Japanese than there are in English, where "and" seems to do the job for nearly every kind of word ("coats and goats," "hard and fast," "eat and drink," "to and fro"...) It would be difficult to make an exhaustive list of all the ways to do this in Japanese, but here are some ...


10

There is also が.  お話があるのですが It is sort of a hedge (weakening). And I see the exact same thing in English. Are you a native English speaker? If so, you should have encountered these expressions. I know a person who ends a sentence with but. It's okay, but ... [Sentence ends without continuation] Another variant I observe in English is: Do you ...


9

~のですが (or ~のですけれども, or ~んだけど, or any of a number of variants) is often used in this way to "set the stage" and provide a context for a succeeding clause or sentence. Here, the purpose of ~のですが is to mark information that will help the listener understand the second half of the sentence. As such, the が here is best translated into English as "and", not "but". ...


7

今は休暇だから本を読んでるし、泳げるようになってるし、リラックスしてる。 This is just my opinion for this particular sentence, but I'd go with the ~たり form here: 今は休暇だから本を読んでたり、泳げるようになってたり、リラックスしてる。 ~し lists either actions or qualities, and while it resembles ~たり in that it doesn't specify an order in which the actions took place, it adds a "not only, but also" implication to it: ...


7

As you have already discovered, -domo attaches to the hypothetical form (仮定形). Historically, this was known as realis (已然形). The kere here is the hypothetical / realis form of -keri. -keri is an obsolete suffix (助動詞) which expresses hearsay recollection. -keri itself may be further split apart as a contraction of -ki ari, where -ki is another obsolete ...


6

から 'since, because' attaches to a clause, whereas で 'with (the reason being)' attaches to a noun. 静かだ is an indicative clause (ordinary sentence), so you can simply attach から, but not で. 静かだから × 静かだで In order to use で, you have to have a noun. To do that, you use the formal noun (or nominalizer) の taking an appositive clause. In appositive ...


6

It means "besides". It confirms the existence of [situationA], and states that there is another [situationB] Your example may be translated as: Besides the decrease of the number of emergencies(accidents, ...), the decrease of the calls when there is no emergency is an important reason.


6

I regret not writing "こわい。だから[...]" with a 句点 in my original comment. The precise way to express it would have been: if こわい and だから are parts of separate clauses, it can be grammatical, otherwise not. In speech, you would usually express こわい and だから belonging to different clauses by inserting a pause. With no pause between them (i.e. without breaking the ...


6

It's simply that だから is the copula だ + から. Therefore: 2 can't be 寒くなっただから because 寒くなっただ is nonsense; you don't put だ after verbs. 1 can't be 寒いだから for the same reason -- い-adjectives don't take だ. They take です, as a politeness marker, but not だ. 3 can't be 寒さから because now から is following a noun instead of a clause or sentence (which だ would have ...


5

It is a genitive marker that is connecting two noun phrases. This is the typical, most common usage of the particle. You may interpret it as "A no B" meaning "A of B" or "A's B". In this phrase, it is (sore nanoni) no ((iikae) ya (betu no iikata)), "a change in wording or another way of saying [the expression] 'sore nanoni'". Note though the second -no. ...


5

te-form is similar to the English participial construction, and has the following restrictions as opposed to using the stem. 1) It implies temporal order 泣いて、笑った 'having cried, laughed' 泣き、笑った 'cried and laughed' [Without temporal implication] 2) Volitionality of what is connected must match  朝、起きて、歯を磨いた  'In the morning, having ...


5

Recall that ば (-eba) attaches to a verb, and past tense affix turns a verb into something other than a verb. That means you cannot directly attach ば to past tense. You need to insert なら or ら in between the past tense and ば. In that case, ば can be omitted. ...た(な)ら(ば)


4

the present tense affirmative: 「走れば」, 「走るならば」, 「走るのならば」(=「走るなら」, 「走るのなら」) the present tense negative: 「走らなければ」, 「走らないならば」, 「走らないのであれば」 (=「走らないなら」, 「走らないのなら」) the past tense affirmative: 「走ったならば」 (=「走ったら」, 「走ったなら」, 「走っていたら」) the past tense negative: 「走らなかったならば」, but I think 「走らなかったら」, 「走っていなかったら」 would be more natural. Oops, I was off ...


3

今日はサッカーをして疲れたけど楽しかった。 今日はサッカーをして疲れたが楽しかった。   去年は遊びまくった。けど、成績は落ちなかった。 去年は遊びまくった。が、成績は落ちなかった。   ご飯食べるのはあとにしよう。おなかすいたけど。 ご飯食べるのはあとにしよう。おなかすいたが。 By comparing these sentences, "けど" appears to be softer and more common in informal speaking. "が" delivers a sense that the speaker/writer is assertive, often used by a person in a higher position or in formal ...


3

Natural languages usually have exclusive disjunction. In order to express inclusive disjunction, you usually have to add some materials to exclusive disjunction. Exclusive disjunction between two things A か B (の({うち/間}の)どちらか(一つ/一方)) 'between A or B' Exclusive disjunction among more than two things A か B, (か) C (の({うち/間/中}の)どれか(一つ)) 'among A, ...


3

With your context, X。この延長線上にこそ、Y。 means 'only if (we have) X, (we can achieve) Y'. This is different from XなのでY which means 'because of'.


3

Your textbook is wrong in saying that [2] is wrong. Whenever P and Q work in the opposite direction towards expectation of R, P ではないが Q is okay. For example, it is fine in the following context: A: だれか、アジア人はいませんか。  'Is there any Asian?' B: 僕は日本人です。  'I am a Japanese.' C: 僕は日本人ではないが, シンガポール人です。  'I am not a Japanese, but am a Singaporean.' In ...


3

Don't forget that there are also many grammatical constructs whose core meaning essentially boils down to "and". それに/更に(さらに)・(〜に)くわえて -- "(and) in addition (to) ~, ..." 〜上 -- "(and) on top of that, ..." (〜にも)まして -- "(and) more than that, ..." This complicates things a little more by adding more options to choose from. But overall, I think ...


3

Yes, it's the stem of 決める plus セリフ (plus the past tense of 使う): [決]{き}め[台詞]{ゼリフ} is one's "signature phrase". The sentence is thus もうお姫さまにきめぜりふつかったの? Did you already use your signature phrase on the princess? I'll leave you to make sense of it in the context of your game.


2

Your sentence basically means "It's because I have no will/desire to go back inside yet." The から is just stating that the preceding clause is a/the reason for some action/behaviour/etc. However, due to your post, we don't know what that is. An example might be the following: しょう君、なぜこの3時間ずっと外で遊んでいるの? → Hey Sho, why have you been playing outside for 3 ...


2

The past tense is shown by た, and its ば form should be たらば. However, "ば" is usually omitted in this case, so normally "たら" is used by itself without "ば". E.g. 雨が降ったら中止だ。 If it rained the (event) will be cancelled. The negative for past tense is なかった (E.g. 降らなかった), formed by ない + た, so its ば form should follow the rule for た to be なかったら. Again ば is omitted. ...


2

There are a couple more examples for exclusive that I can think of: AそしてまたB AまたはB AそれともB A或【ある】いはB


2

Syntactically, it is the copula だ with conjunct が, probably used in a cleft sentence with some omission. が often connects contrasting clauses, but as with this case, it can just connect two clauses that do not contrast. The literal translation is 'On top of the fact that (it) is my uncle who lives close-by (that I am going to talk about), I've heard that ...


2

As others have stated, the reasons why there's a ところ in ところが and ところで are entirely historical. It probably had a more literal meaning in the past, but now its became part of a frozen expression, where the lexical value (the meaning) is assigned to the entire expression, and its parts don't matter much anymore. The situation here is really no different than ...


1

I think that が is disjunctive while けど is concessive. That is to say that が may connect two disjunctive (disconnected) parts, while けど not just connects the two but introduces the succeeding clause as a circumstance that might be expected to preclude the action of the main clause but does not. I think the term "disjunctive" is a superset of "concessive". ...


1

所 in these usages are originally a formal noun modified by a relative clause, which happens to be omitted. 所 itself does not have much meaning, just like the English words situation, state. Similar usages of 所 were popular in word-by-word translation of European languages after the Meiji Restoration: ... ところのもの In present day Japanese, the expressions ...


1

Just like in English, 'here' and 'place' don't always mean a physical location in Japanese. Sometimes they mean the current situation, etc.



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