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20

I find the best way to discriminate between these two is the following: ~ので marks an objective cause: 電車が遅れたので、間に合わなかった。 The fact that the train ran late is an objective, verifiable fact. The emphasis of the sentence is not so much on the cause as it is on the effect (or the sentence as a whole). ~から marks a subjective cause: 彼女はこれが好きそうだから、買ってあげよう。 The ...


15

と and や are used to connect two or more nouns. Most of the time, と can only be used for a fixed number of items like: "キーボードとマウスいる". (we need) keyboard and mouse But や is used when there is a variable/unknown length like: "キーボードやマウス、そしてLANケーブルとかいるかも" (we need) keyboard, mouse and probably LAN cables also. Also や has some sense for ...


13

Suffice it to say, there are a lot more ways to join words or phrases together in Japanese than there are in English, where "and" seems to do the job for nearly every kind of word ("coats and goats," "hard and fast," "eat and drink," "to and fro"...) It would be difficult to make an exhaustive list of all the ways to do this in Japanese, but here are some ...


10

~のですが (or ~のですけれども, or ~んだけど, or any of a number of variants) is often used in this way to "set the stage" and provide a context for a succeeding clause or sentence. Here, the purpose of ~のですが is to mark information that will help the listener understand the second half of the sentence. As such, the が here is best translated into English as "and", not "but". ...


9

今は休暇だから本を読んでるし、泳げるようになってるし、リラックスしてる。 This is just my opinion for this particular sentence, but I'd go with the ~たり form here: 今は休暇だから本を読んでたり、泳げるようになってたり、リラックスしてる。 ~し lists either actions or qualities, and while it resembles ~たり in that it doesn't specify an order in which the actions took place, it adds a "not only, but also" implication to it: ...


9

とはいえ=といっても (approximately), meaning "although." It's similar to 〜くあれ=〜くても or AあれB=AあってもB, in that it's a written-style usage of the imperative that functions as a concessive. That is, it's conceding something: although, though, even though, yet, however, etc. 春【はる】とはいえまだ寒【さむ】い。 = Although it's spring, it's still cold. Keep in mind that this isn't 言【い】う in ...


8

The other person is correct on this. We use 「けれども」 as a neutral connector rather frequently for simply connecting two (mini-)statements. I have no idea what bilingual dictionaries would say about this as I almost never use them myself, but a simple search in a monolingual dictionary will reveal the definition in question. For instance, see here (一 - ➂): ...


7

As you have already discovered, -domo attaches to the hypothetical form (仮定形). Historically, this was known as realis (已然形). The kere here is the hypothetical / realis form of -keri. -keri is an obsolete suffix (助動詞) which expresses hearsay recollection. -keri itself may be further split apart as a contraction of -ki ari, where -ki is another obsolete ...


7

First, let us get the part of speech straight as it is of utmost importance here. The 「で」 that is "omitted" in the phrase 「[無関係]{むかんけい}で」 is an auxiliary verb. Specifically, it is the [連用形]{れんようけい} of the affirmation auxiliary verb 「だ」. Because it is the 連用形, the sentence can continue following it while maintaining its natural flow. In meaning, ...


7

Some definitions on the net: 身も蓋もない 言葉が露骨すぎて、潤いも含みもない。 露骨すぎて情緒もない。 直接過ぎて、話の続けようがない。 So it refers to some very explicit/direct/honest expression which may sound harsh or uninteresting. Obviously it doesn't fit in the context you provided. As pointed out in the comment, that person was probably confusing the phrase with 元も子もない, which ...


7

「とは」 here is not being used for nominalization. As a matter of fact, I could not think of a situation where 「とは」 could be used for pure nominalization. We are talking about 「とは」 and not 「ことは」, right? 「彼がひどいことをしたとは信じがたい。」 = "I find it hard to believe that he did such an awful thing." to borrow your own TL. In this sentence, 「とは」 expresses the ...


7

To break down, this とは is the quotative particle と, followed by the "topic marker" は. Probably you already know how to use と in sentences like these: 彼が学生だと聞いている。 I've heard he's a student. 明日は晴れると思う。 I think it will be fine tomorrow. プロジェクトが成功すると信じている。 I believe the project will succeed. When you add は after と, such は will function as the ...


6

It's simply that だから is the copula だ + から. Therefore: 2 can't be 寒くなっただから because 寒くなっただ is nonsense; you don't put だ after verbs. 1 can't be 寒いだから for the same reason -- い-adjectives don't take だ. They take です, as a politeness marker, but not だ. 3 can't be 寒さから because now から is following a noun instead of a clause or sentence (which だ would have ...


6

It means "besides". It confirms the existence of [situationA], and states that there is another [situationB] Your example may be translated as: Besides the decrease of the number of emergencies(accidents, ...), the decrease of the calls when there is no emergency is an important reason.


6

I regret not writing "こわい。だから[...]" with a 句点 in my original comment. The precise way to express it would have been: if こわい and だから are parts of separate clauses, it can be grammatical, otherwise not. In speech, you would usually express こわい and だから belonging to different clauses by inserting a pause. With no pause between them (i.e. without breaking the ...


6

今日はサッカーをして疲れたけど楽しかった。 今日はサッカーをして疲れたが楽しかった。   去年は遊びまくった。けど、成績は落ちなかった。 去年は遊びまくった。が、成績は落ちなかった。   ご飯食べるのはあとにしよう。おなかすいたけど。 ご飯食べるのはあとにしよう。おなかすいたが。 By comparing these sentences, "けど" appears to be softer and more common in informal speaking. "が" delivers a sense that the speaker/writer is assertive, often used by a person in a higher position or in formal ...


5

It is a genitive marker that is connecting two noun phrases. This is the typical, most common usage of the particle. You may interpret it as "A no B" meaning "A of B" or "A's B". In this phrase, it is (sore nanoni) no ((iikae) ya (betu no iikata)), "a change in wording or another way of saying [the expression] 'sore nanoni'". Note though the second -no. ...


5

That だろう in question is not special. (Assuming this paragraph is exactly the same as the original) I think the confusing problem is that the author used punctuation marks clumsily (with a certain intention, maybe). Read this paragraph like this: 私は自分では淋しくも何ともないから、彼女と私とでは、一般的にいう「不幸」という点で、どっこいどっこいのような気がする。 だが、彼女は自分のほうが私よりも「ちょっと幸せ」だと感じているのだろう。 ...


5

That's right. This kind of に won't always be replaceable with と, but in your case it basically is. From デジタル大辞泉: [接助]活用語の連体形に付く。 1 あとの叙述の前置きとして続ける意を表す。…と。…ところ。 「考えてみるに庶民のための政治は当分望めそうにない」 The に marks a lead-in to the main point which follows. その表情から察するに〜 Judging from the expression… 私が思うに〜 The way I think of it… 彼が言うに〜 According to him…


5

When ただ appears directly before a numeral + quantifier pair, like in the phrases ただひとり or ただひとつ, it usually has this meaning: 数量・程度などがきわめて少ないさま。たった。わずかに。「ただ一人だけ生き残る」 (二-③ in 明鏡国語辞典) I think it corresponds to the word 'only' in your translation, as part of ただひとり. I don't think it means 'but' here. There isn't any conjunction in the original ...


4

As I mentioned before, those examples that I gave you, and that you're using for your question here, are from the Japanese grammar book Particles Plus by Atsuko Kawashima (Harcourt, Tokyo 1992). About your first alternative translation: The dog is barking, but someone is outside, right? In the original Japanese sentence 犬がほえている is merely a ...


4

けど is the short form of けれども, which could be written け(れ)ど(も), because all of けれども, けれど, けども, けど are used. けども is what, in my experience, is often used in a half formal, half informal setting. It is more refined than けど, but not quite as stiff as けれども.


4

けれども is a contradictory conjugation expressing something along the lines of "but" or "however." The ど/ども part in this expression is the part that expresses the contradiction. By a means of shortening one's speech (through laziness, etc.) the different forms came into usage. The shortening is analogous to contractions in English (cannot -> can't). As such, ...


4

The sentence is fine in a storybook sense. It is not a complete sentence, but books don't always use complete sentences--English included. The verb is implied, though it wouldn't be いました like you wrote. ありました or more colorfully perhaps (が)待っていました。 You can omit anything that is understood without it. As Japanese is very verb-centric it's more common to ...



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