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15

I find the best way to discriminate between these two is the following: ~ので marks an objective cause: 電車が遅れたので、間に合わなかった。 The fact that the train ran late is an objective, verifiable fact. The emphasis of the sentence is not so much on the cause as it is on the effect (or the sentence as a whole). ~から marks a subjective cause: 彼女はこれが好きそうだから、買ってあげよう。 The ...


14

と and や are used to connect two or more nouns. Most of the time, と can only be used for a fixed number of items like: "キーボードとマウスいる". (we need) keyboard and mouse But や is used when there is a variable/unknown length like: "キーボードやマウス、そしてLANケーブルとかいるかも" (we need) keyboard, mouse and probably LAN cables also. Also や has some sense for ...


12

Suffice it to say, there are a lot more ways to join words or phrases together in Japanese than there are in English, where "and" seems to do the job for nearly every kind of word ("coats and goats," "hard and fast," "eat and drink," "to and fro"...) It would be difficult to make an exhaustive list of all the ways to do this in Japanese, but here are some ...


8

~のですが (or ~のですけれども, or ~んだけど, or any of a number of variants) is often used in this way to "set the stage" and provide a context for a succeeding clause or sentence. Here, the purpose of ~のですが is to mark information that will help the listener understand the second half of the sentence. As such, the が here is best translated into English as "and", not "but". ...


8

The other person is correct on this. We use 「けれども」 as a neutral connector rather frequently for simply connecting two (mini-)statements. I have no idea what bilingual dictionaries would say about this as I almost never use them myself, but a simple search in a monolingual dictionary will reveal the definition in question. For instance, see here (一 - ➂): ...


7

As you have already discovered, -domo attaches to the hypothetical form (仮定形). Historically, this was known as realis (已然形). The kere here is the hypothetical / realis form of -keri. -keri is an obsolete suffix (助動詞) which expresses hearsay recollection. -keri itself may be further split apart as a contraction of -ki ari, where -ki is another obsolete ...


7

今は休暇だから本を読んでるし、泳げるようになってるし、リラックスしてる。 This is just my opinion for this particular sentence, but I'd go with the ~たり form here: 今は休暇だから本を読んでたり、泳げるようになってたり、リラックスしてる。 ~し lists either actions or qualities, and while it resembles ~たり in that it doesn't specify an order in which the actions took place, it adds a "not only, but also" implication to it: ...


6

It means "besides". It confirms the existence of [situationA], and states that there is another [situationB] Your example may be translated as: Besides the decrease of the number of emergencies(accidents, ...), the decrease of the calls when there is no emergency is an important reason.


6

I regret not writing "こわい。だから[...]" with a 句点 in my original comment. The precise way to express it would have been: if こわい and だから are parts of separate clauses, it can be grammatical, otherwise not. In speech, you would usually express こわい and だから belonging to different clauses by inserting a pause. With no pause between them (i.e. without breaking the ...


5

It's simply that だから is the copula だ + から. Therefore: 2 can't be 寒くなっただから because 寒くなっただ is nonsense; you don't put だ after verbs. 1 can't be 寒いだから for the same reason -- い-adjectives don't take だ. They take です, as a politeness marker, but not だ. 3 can't be 寒さから because now から is following a noun instead of a clause or sentence (which だ would have ...


5

It is a genitive marker that is connecting two noun phrases. This is the typical, most common usage of the particle. You may interpret it as "A no B" meaning "A of B" or "A's B". In this phrase, it is (sore nanoni) no ((iikae) ya (betu no iikata)), "a change in wording or another way of saying [the expression] 'sore nanoni'". Note though the second -no. ...


4

the present tense affirmative: 「走れば」, 「走るならば」, 「走るのならば」(=「走るなら」, 「走るのなら」) the present tense negative: 「走らなければ」, 「走らないならば」, 「走らないのであれば」 (=「走らないなら」, 「走らないのなら」) the past tense affirmative: 「走ったならば」 (=「走ったら」, 「走ったなら」, 「走っていたら」) the past tense negative: 「走らなかったならば」, but I think 「走らなかったら」, 「走っていなかったら」 would be more natural. Oops, I was off ...


4

今日はサッカーをして疲れたけど楽しかった。 今日はサッカーをして疲れたが楽しかった。   去年は遊びまくった。けど、成績は落ちなかった。 去年は遊びまくった。が、成績は落ちなかった。   ご飯食べるのはあとにしよう。おなかすいたけど。 ご飯食べるのはあとにしよう。おなかすいたが。 By comparing these sentences, "けど" appears to be softer and more common in informal speaking. "が" delivers a sense that the speaker/writer is assertive, often used by a person in a higher position or in formal ...


4

As I mentioned before, those examples that I gave you, and that you're using for your question here, are from the Japanese grammar book Particles Plus by Atsuko Kawashima (Harcourt, Tokyo 1992). About your first alternative translation: The dog is barking, but someone is outside, right? In the original Japanese sentence 犬がほえている is merely a ...


3

Don't forget that there are also many grammatical constructs whose core meaning essentially boils down to "and". それに/更に(さらに)・(〜に)くわえて -- "(and) in addition (to) ~, ..." 〜上 -- "(and) on top of that, ..." (〜にも)まして -- "(and) more than that, ..." This complicates things a little more by adding more options to choose from. But overall, I think ...


3

Yes, it's the stem of 決める plus セリフ (plus the past tense of 使う): [決]{き}め[台詞]{ゼリフ} is one's "signature phrase". The sentence is thus もうお姫さまにきめぜりふつかったの? Did you already use your signature phrase on the princess? I'll leave you to make sense of it in the context of your game.


3

Your sentence basically means "It's because I have no will/desire to go back inside yet." The から is just stating that the preceding clause is a/the reason for some action/behaviour/etc. However, due to your post, we don't know what that is. An example might be the following: しょう君、なぜこの3時間ずっと外で遊んでいるの? → Hey Sho, why have you been playing outside for 3 ...


2

The past tense is shown by た, and its ば form should be たらば. However, "ば" is usually omitted in this case, so normally "たら" is used by itself without "ば". E.g. 雨が降ったら中止だ。 If it rained the (event) will be cancelled. The negative for past tense is なかった (E.g. 降らなかった), formed by ない + た, so its ば form should follow the rule for た to be なかったら. Again ば is omitted. ...


2

There are a couple more examples for exclusive that I can think of: AそしてまたB AまたはB AそれともB A或【ある】いはB


2

As others have stated, the reasons why there's a ところ in ところが and ところで are entirely historical. It probably had a more literal meaning in the past, but now its became part of a frozen expression, where the lexical value (the meaning) is assigned to the entire expression, and its parts don't matter much anymore. The situation here is really no different than ...


2

With your context, X。この延長線上にこそ、Y。 means 'only if (we have) X, (we can achieve) Y'. This is different from XなのでY which means 'because of'.


1

If you include 「で」 , then the「で」will naturally be accented in speech as it is the end of the clause and the 「で」is linking the two clauses together (not really as a conjunction, but as the 連用形 for 「である」 or 「だ」). Including 「で」 makes it sound as though the first clause is trying to explain the second. Leaving the 「で」 out makes the clause ending in 「無関係」 stand ...


1

(Either で is conjunctive particle or adverval form of copula) It's because once で is omitted, it's no longer a continuative clause and equivalent to 無関係だ. 無関係で…時間をかける。 → 無関係(だ)。…時間をかける。



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