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7

No, that's a ren’yōkei 連用形。 A ren’yōkei mid-sentence is for coordination, like English “he sat, and…”. You can think of it as a literary equivalent of 「こしをかけて、。。。」 Kateikei is what comes before -ba, so in this case it would be kakere-. Full table, with sample context: 未然形: 掛け-  kake- (-nai) 連用形: 掛け-  kake- (-masu) 終止形: 掛ける kake-ru (yo.) 連体形: 掛ける- ...


7

Regarding the etymology of the "please" すみません, according to the gogen-allguide entry, it is 済みません, not 住みません. As to whether 住みません is used, it is, but not terribly commonly. Basically it's only used when you really want the future tense: 太郎と一緒に住みませんか? "Won't you live together with Tarou?" 今週より後に、この家には誰も住みません。 "After this week, no one will ...


6

「答{こた}えられる」 has three different usages and meanings. Honorific: Used when describing someone higher up answering. 「その質問{しつもん}にはスミス様{さま}が答えられました。」 = "Mr. Smith (kindly) answered the question." Potential: Used to express "can answer" or "to be able to answer". 「その質問は難{むずか}しすぎて答えられません。」 = "That question is too difficult (for me) to ...


5

If you mean "risky and speculative", then you should say 危険で投機的な, because that's one of dedicated meaning 連用形 has. Saying 「危険な、投機的な事業」 (putting a comma is a good practice) for this meaning is not prohibited, but it either sounds like adding words one by one while you're speaking, which isn't very nice for written language; or could mean "risky or ...


5

Just copied & pasted from my half-year-old answer (though the question itself isn't a duplicate): Though I translated 日本語を話す into "speak Japanese", the verb doesn't have "be able to speak" sense, so every time you have to explicitly use potential form when you question about ability. 日本語が話せますか? Do you speak Japanese? compared ...


4

「謝{あやま}んなくったっていいんだよ。」 Needless to say, this is colloquial speech which uses what I call the "two distinct hallmarks" of colloquial speech -- 「ん」 and the small 「っ」. Now, watch the hallmarks disappear instantly as I put the phrase into the "dictionary" form. 「謝らなくてもいいのですよ」 In Kanto (and even a larger area because of TV), 「ら」 often changes to 「ん」 in ...


4

There is a way that ~もの can be applied to all verbs to "make them a noun", but it's not the way you're thinking of. If you have a verb (e.g. 走る【はしる】 "to run") and a noun (e.g. 人【ひと】 "person"), you can always take the dictionary form (辞書形【じしょけい】) of the verb and put it before the noun, to get a construction that means something like "[noun] that [verb]s" ...


4

The conditional -(r)eba has two forms: Following a consonant-stem verb, it takes the form of -eba: 行く   ik-u →  行けば   ik-eba 泳ぐ   oyog-u →  泳げば   oyog-eba 差す   sas-u →  差せば   sas-eba 放つ  hanat-u →  放てば  hanat-eba 死ぬ   sin-u →  死ねば   sin-eba 運ぶ  hakob-u →  運べば  hakob-eba 飲む   nom-u →  飲めば   nom-eba 走る  hasir-u →  走れば  hasir-eba 構う  ...


4

First, let us review the adjectives involved to make sure there is no confusion. Size vs. Quantity/Frequency: Size: 「[小]{ちい}さい」 = "small". 「[大]{おお}きい」 = "large" Quantity/Frequency: 「[少]{すく}ない」 = "few", "a little", "not frequent" 「[多]{おお}い」 = "many", "much", "frequent" Moving on to Grammar: To express "to get or become (adjective)" in ...


4

「し」 is the [連体形]{れんたいけい} (attributive form) of the retrospective auxiliary verb 「き」. 連体形 modifies nouns (頃 in this case). Even though 「き」 is a Classical auxiliary verb, it is listed in any medium-sized dictionary of Modern Japanese because it is still used today in creative writing where the author's aesthetic preference calls for the old-fashioned and/or ...


3

It's a Classical Japanese particle, nowadays only used as frequent as "methinks". It means exactly what must not do in English, and attaches to Classical 未然形 of a verb or adjective (that is, the form which the negative -ず and -ぬ appends to). See: the entry of じ in a Japanese-Japanese dictionary


3

私は食べるのが好きです means "I like eating" and 食べるの functions as a noun but 行って(は) as in 金曜日、日本へ行っては思う is not a noun but an adverb or a verb in an adverbial form, and it means "Every friday I go to Japan and think". As for 金曜日、日本へ行っては思う, first, は is not a particle to denote the subject of the sentence here, so the sentence doesn't mean "the act of going make me ...


3

The し is the rentai-kei (attributive) form of the past auxiliary き in classical Japanese. http://www.hello-school.net/haroajapa009002.htm 生まれし頃(literary)→生まれた頃(modern)  


3

見える To be visible, to be in sight. あそこに高{たか}い山{やま}が見える。 A tall mountain can be seen over there. 僕{ぼく}にはあなたが見える。 You are visible to me / I can see you. to look like. 僕にはその雲{くも}がわたあめに見える。 That cloud looks like cotton candy to me. 見える is about objects being visible and not so much about one's ability to to see them. Obviously, if an ...


3

It appears that 「ない」 conjugates onto the 連用形{れんようけい} (~~く) form of i-adjectives instead of the 未然形{みぜんけい} (~~かろ) form, as it does with verbs. Is this correct? Yes, it is correct. As a Japanese-learner, I suppose you would just have to memorize the rule in forming the negative forms. Keep making mistakes and eventually, only the correct forms will ...


3

「きみ の しらない ものがたり」 In this phrase, 「の」 means the same thing as 「が」, the subject marker. It does not express possession. Thus, that phrase means "the story that you do not know of". Other examples of this use of 「の」. 「ボクの[食]{た}べたピザは1,000[円]{えん}でした。」"The pizza that I ate was 1,000 yen." 「スミスさんの[住]{す}んでいる[町]{まち}はきれいです。」"The town Smith lives in is ...


3

See this answer. snailboat puts it rather nicely. In short, it may make more sense to think about it as [ きみが しらない ] ものがたり (and in fact, they are equivalent). The subject of しらない is implied to be きみ, and thus the title can be translated as: the story you (the subject) don't know The title could only be translated to "your unknown story" if the subject ...


3

The answer is basically no. You can express any progressive actions with (adverbal form) + つつある, which was created to translate exactly English progressive forms, though it's not frequently used in everyday conversation. Speaking how to translate the examples you suggested to common expressions, "My friend is going to Europe now":私の友達は今ヨーロッパへ向かっている "The ...


3

I think you could say like: (もし)それで(お)金持ちになれるのなら / なれるなら / なれたら / なれれば、問題(は)ないだろう。(or 構わないだろう / いいだろう etc. depending on the context.) それで = それ (that) + particle で (with; because of)


3

I'm going to try to do two things in this answer. First, I'm going to try to address the tangle of terms and theories that have got you confused. (So this answer will unfortunately be rather long!) Second, I'll try to address the specific question of 誘う. Feel free to skip any section that doesn't look immediately helpful :-) What do '-u verb' and ...


3

That depends on context. (After/Once) I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きたら、猫にえさをやる。 (The order is) after I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きてから、猫にえさをやる。 (After) I wake up, (then) I feed my cat. 起きた後(で)、猫にえさをやる。


2

住む often occurs in the 〜ている form in the wild to reflect a continuing state or condition. So then, if I wanted to say I don't live somewhere I would say (dictionary and polite): 東京に住んでいない / 東京に住んでいません。 or 東京に住んだことはない。 / 東京に住んだことはありません。 (I have not lived in Tokyo) The すみません of apologies is from 済む. But generally, it is not written in kanji. In ...


2

【帰る】 is the plain form. 【帰れる】 is the potential form, so to express that you can go back.


2

私は少し日本語を話します。 I will speak a little Japanese. (starting now) 私は少し日本語を話せます。 I can speak a little Japanese. (the ability to speak) On a side note, a quick grammar fix (leaving word order as is) 私は少し日本語が話せます。


2

As you may know, Japanese verbs are either godan (five step) or ichidan (one step) verbs. Godan Verbs: remove the masu e.g. ikimasu -> iki then change the final syllable to a 'u' sound, e.g. iki -> iku other examples: iimasu -> ii -> iu nomimasu -> nomi -> nomu Ichidan verbs: remove the masu ...


2

「腰を仲ばし」 makes no sense I am afraid. Are you sure it was not 「腰を伸ばし」? 「[腰]{こし}を[伸]{の}ばす」 means "to straighten oneself". The sentence you found on google is incorrect as well. It should be 「伸ばします」 at the end.


2

Don't try to freely create nouns from 連用形. There are many nouns that look the same as the 連用形 of the corresponding verbs, but such nouns were lexicalized long ago, and they often have different meanings derived from the original verb. You have to look up a dictionary each time. 話【はなし】 tale, story (rather than 'talking') 叩き this method of preparing foods in ...


2

間違っていたら、修正してください。 間違う means "to make a mistake" 間違って is the て form of 間違う 間違っている means "are/is making a mistake" 間違っていた is the た form of 間違っている and means "were/was making a mistake" 間違っていたら means "if I was making a mistake"


2

さそえる would be a ru-verb, but さそう doesn't even end in る, and its stem is saso(w)-, which when joined to -areru gives sasowareru さそわれる. Recall, if the word ends in anything but -iru or -eru it's a "consonant stem" verb and you get the stem by deleting the final vowel. This includes verbs ending in -(w)u, where you only see the consonant if the stem is ...



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