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7

Regarding the etymology of the "please" すみません, according to the gogen-allguide entry, it is 済みません, not 住みません. As to whether 住みません is used, it is, but not terribly commonly. Basically it's only used when you really want the future tense: 太郎と一緒に住みませんか? "Won't you live together with Tarou?" 今週より後に、この家には誰も住みません。 "After this week, no one will ...


7

No, that's a ren’yōkei 連用形。 A ren’yōkei mid-sentence is for coordination, like English “he sat, and…”. You can think of it as a literary equivalent of 「こしをかけて、。。。」 Kateikei is what comes before -ba, so in this case it would be kakere-. Full table, with sample context: 未然形: 掛け-  kake- (-nai) 連用形: 掛け-  kake- (-masu) 終止形: 掛ける kake-ru (yo.) 連体形: 掛ける- ...


5

Just copied & pasted from my half-year-old answer (though the question itself isn't a duplicate): Though I translated 日本語を話す into "speak Japanese", the verb doesn't have "be able to speak" sense, so every time you have to explicitly use potential form when you question about ability. 日本語が話せますか? Do you speak Japanese? compared ...


4

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


4

Yes, all your assumptions about about the conjugations are correct. And far as comparing it to つもり, つもり simply means "intention (to do something)". It doesn't directly have anything to do with preparation or doing something beforehand. That it carries this mean in your example is incidental. With your 勉強しておく sentence, the preparation is explicit; with ...


4

There is a way that ~もの can be applied to all verbs to "make them a noun", but it's not the way you're thinking of. If you have a verb (e.g. 走る【はしる】 "to run") and a noun (e.g. 人【ひと】 "person"), you can always take the dictionary form (辞書形【じしょけい】) of the verb and put it before the noun, to get a construction that means something like "[noun] that [verb]s" ...


4

「謝{あやま}んなくったっていいんだよ。」 Needless to say, this is colloquial speech which uses what I call the "two distinct hallmarks" of colloquial speech -- 「ん」 and the small 「っ」. Now, watch the hallmarks disappear instantly as I put the phrase into the "dictionary" form. 「謝らなくてもいいのですよ」 In Kanto (and even a larger area because of TV), 「ら」 often changes to 「ん」 in ...


4

First, let us review the adjectives involved to make sure there is no confusion. Size vs. Quantity/Frequency: Size: 「[小]{ちい}さい」 = "small". 「[大]{おお}きい」 = "large" Quantity/Frequency: 「[少]{すく}ない」 = "few", "a little", "not frequent" 「[多]{おお}い」 = "many", "much", "frequent" Moving on to Grammar: To express "to get or become (adjective)" in ...


4

The conditional -(r)eba has two forms: Following a consonant-stem verb, it takes the form of -eba: 行く   ik-u →  行けば   ik-eba 泳ぐ   oyog-u →  泳げば   oyog-eba 差す   sas-u →  差せば   sas-eba 放つ  hanat-u →  放てば  hanat-eba 死ぬ   sin-u →  死ねば   sin-eba 運ぶ  hakob-u →  運べば  hakob-eba 飲む   nom-u →  飲めば   nom-eba 走る  hasir-u →  走れば  hasir-eba 構う  ...


4

「し」 is the [連体形]{れんたいけい} (attributive form) of the retrospective auxiliary verb 「き」. 連体形 modifies nouns (頃 in this case). Even though 「き」 is a Classical auxiliary verb, it is listed in any medium-sized dictionary of Modern Japanese because it is still used today in creative writing where the author's aesthetic preference calls for the old-fashioned and/or ...


3

It's a Classical Japanese particle, nowadays only used as frequent as "methinks". It means exactly what must not do in English, and attaches to Classical 未然形 of a verb or adjective (that is, the form which the negative -ず and -ぬ appends to). See: the entry of じ in a Japanese-Japanese dictionary


3

見える To be visible, to be in sight. あそこに高{たか}い山{やま}が見える。 A tall mountain can be seen over there. 僕{ぼく}にはあなたが見える。 You are visible to me / I can see you. to look like. 僕にはその雲{くも}がわたあめに見える。 That cloud looks like cotton candy to me. 見える is about objects being visible and not so much about one's ability to to see them. Obviously, if an ...


3

The answer is basically no. You can express any progressive actions with (adverbal form) + つつある, which was created to translate exactly English progressive forms, though it's not frequently used in everyday conversation. Speaking how to translate the examples you suggested to common expressions, "My friend is going to Europe now":私の友達は今ヨーロッパへ向かっている "The ...


3

The answer up there you posted seems to make it seem pretty clear to me. 東北辺りでは これば?と言う人もいます 方言の一種ですね 読み仮名を付ける場合は「くれば」しかありません is translated to: Around Touhoku, there's some people who say 「これば」. It's just one type of local dialect. But when you write it down, the only correct way is 「くれば」。 So in other words, if you are in 東北 and say 「これば」you will be ...


3

It appears that 「ない」 conjugates onto the 連用形{れんようけい} (~~く) form of i-adjectives instead of the 未然形{みぜんけい} (~~かろ) form, as it does with verbs. Is this correct? Yes, it is correct. As a Japanese-learner, I suppose you would just have to memorize the rule in forming the negative forms. Keep making mistakes and eventually, only the correct forms will ...


3

If you mean "risky and speculative", then you should say 危険で投機的な, because that's one of dedicated meaning 連用形 has. Saying 「危険な、投機的な事業」 (putting a comma is a good practice) for this meaning is not prohibited, but it either sounds like adding words one by one while you're speaking, which isn't very nice for written language; or could mean "risky or ...


3

「きみ の しらない ものがたり」 In this phrase, 「の」 means the same thing as 「が」, the subject marker. It does not express possession. Thus, that phrase means "the story that you do not know of". Other examples of this use of 「の」. 「ボクの[食]{た}べたピザは1,000[円]{えん}でした。」"The pizza that I ate was 1,000 yen." 「スミスさんの[住]{す}んでいる[町]{まち}はきれいです。」"The town Smith lives in is ...


3

See this answer. snailboat puts it rather nicely. In short, it may make more sense to think about it as [ きみが しらない ] ものがたり (and in fact, they are equivalent). The subject of しらない is implied to be きみ, and thus the title can be translated as: the story you (the subject) don't know The title could only be translated to "your unknown story" if the subject ...


3

私は食べるのが好きです means "I like eating" and 食べるの functions as a noun but 行って(は) as in 金曜日、日本へ行っては思う is not a noun but an adverb or a verb in an adverbial form, and it means "Every friday I go to Japan and think". As for 金曜日、日本へ行っては思う, first, は is not a particle to denote the subject of the sentence here, so the sentence doesn't mean "the act of going make me ...


3

The し is the rentai-kei (attributive) form of the past auxiliary き in classical Japanese. http://www.hello-school.net/haroajapa009002.htm 生まれし頃(literary)→生まれた頃(modern)  


2

【帰る】 is the plain form. 【帰れる】 is the potential form, so to express that you can go back.


2

私は少し日本語を話します。 I will speak a little Japanese. (starting now) 私は少し日本語を話せます。 I can speak a little Japanese. (the ability to speak) On a side note, a quick grammar fix (leaving word order as is) 私は少し日本語が話せます。


2

住む often occurs in the 〜ている form in the wild to reflect a continuing state or condition. So then, if I wanted to say I don't live somewhere I would say (dictionary and polite): 東京に住んでいない / 東京に住んでいません。 or 東京に住んだことはない。 / 東京に住んだことはありません。 (I have not lived in Tokyo) The すみません of apologies is from 済む. But generally, it is not written in kanji. In ...


2

It might help to think about what's going on with 「ておく」 and 「とく」 in romaji. " 勉強 shiteoku " The we just drop the 'e' ('cause we're cool kids)... " 勉強 shitoku " The same kind of thing happens all the time with 「い」"i" 「何食べている?」 becomes 「何たべてる?」 (just drop the 「い」) "Nani tabeteiru?" becomes "Nani tabeteru?" (Just drop the 'i') This can seem more ...


2

As you may know, Japanese verbs are either godan (five step) or ichidan (one step) verbs. Godan Verbs: remove the masu e.g. ikimasu -> iki then change the final syllable to a 'u' sound, e.g. iki -> iku other examples: iimasu -> ii -> iu nomimasu -> nomi -> nomu Ichidan verbs: remove the masu ...


2

「腰を仲ばし」 makes no sense I am afraid. Are you sure it was not 「腰を伸ばし」? 「[腰]{こし}を[伸]{の}ばす」 means "to straighten oneself". The sentence you found on google is incorrect as well. It should be 「伸ばします」 at the end.


1

Your question is too good, but when I dare to consider the difference, (お腹が)空いた feels that you now have found yourself hungry from a subjective viewpoint and the feel of hunger is right on you in the moment you utter the word. On the other hand, …空いている is somehow objective. Considering はい、食べたいです。お腹が空いていますから that your text book says, that expression feels a ...


1

From my understanding because 日記 and 部屋 are marked with を it adds the implication that the subject/topic of the sentence (僕) is the owner of the 日記 and 部屋 since he was affected by his little sister acting out the verb. Is this correct? Yes. But maybe your understanding about why it works in that way is not enough correct. 僕は in your example #1 and #2 is ...



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