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17

The most commonly known ぬ is the helper verb of negation, similar to ない. It is, like ない, added to the [未然形]{みぜんけい}-base of a verb: [立]{た}たぬ=立たない=does not stand. However, in this case we have ぬ being added to 立ち, and there's a different story behind it. Note how the English wikipedia entry for [風]{かぜ}[立]{た}ちぬ says "The wind rises", with no negative meaning ...


11

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, !you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


8

First, let me comment on your three examples: です ⇔ であります We discussed です before. According to 大辞林, there are several theories, but we don't know its etymology for sure. This is one of the three theories it lists, though. I've read that でございます may be more likely, but I never read an explanation why, so I won't make that assertion here. じゃない ⇔ ...


7

In English, the auxiliary verb do is a meaningless verb that is inserted for various reasons. For example, direct questions require an auxiliary verb in modern English:  1a. *Like you the movie?  1b. Do you like the movie? When you form an English question like this, the subject and auxiliary swap places. But the lexical verb like isn't ...


7

There are many ways to say "after ...ing" in japanese. There is no one to one translation, since you can use different words as "after" depending one the overall meaning of the sentence. -て から One of the most common translations and one of the first one learns would be: -て から This shouldn't be confused with the reason-giving から which is not used ...


7

Firstly, じゃ is a contraction of では, where は is the topic particle. The construct ではありません is then seen to be the negative form of であります with a は inserted, and であります is a formal version of です. So perhaps the real question is, what is the purpose of で? It carries most of the semantic load: there a few other constructions meaning "to be" of the pattern で + ...


6

全然 began to be taught as only being followed by negatives between 1950 and 1960. As mentioned in in the comments above, とても can actually be, and very often is, used with negatives. And in colloquial Japanese, 全然+non-neg. is currently, and likely always has been, frequently used. In normal Japanese, you are correct in your presumption that double negatives ...


5

〜き is the classical form of the 連体形 of 形容詞. Sound changes caused き to turn into い for the modern 連体形 (and 終止形). 〜き works exactly like 〜い in modern Japanese, except it can't be at the end of sentences, it can only be in relative clauses: ○高き壁、x壁は高き No, any 形容詞 can end with 〜き in classical (or pseudo-classical) Japanese. いと is: an adverb (副詞), not a prefix ...


5

「[出向]{しゅっこう}する」 is the plain active voice form. 「出向させられる」 is the causative passive voice form. As far as what these two forms not only imply but explicitly express to the native speakers, there is a world of difference between them and therefore, they are rarely, if ever, interchangeable. That they might appear interchangeable in their English ...


4

Are you talking about a website like Wiktionary? It appears that some sites which automatically generate conjugation charts treat "もっていく" as though it's a regular godan verb, but you're correct that it's もって + いく, and that いく conjugates as it normally does. It should be もっていって, not *もっていいて.


4

I think both... 会話能力を持った初の人間型ロボットキロボが宇宙飛行士の若田幸一さんと国際宇宙ステーションで雑談した。 会話能力を持つ初の人間型ロボットキロボが宇宙飛行士の若田幸一さんと国際宇宙ステーションで雑談した。 ... would sound okay for the newspaper. These sound more formal/literary than... 会話能力を持っている初の人間型ロボットキロボが... ... to me. (I would use 持っている/持ってる/のある/がある if I was to say this in normal conversation.) Even if the sentence ended ...


4

The meaning of these two sentences is likely to be different. Plain negative: (1) いいえ、まだしない。 "No, (I) do not do it (habitually) yet." (yet: habitual) "No, (I) will not do it yet." (yet: habitual) "No, (I) still do not do it (habitually)." (still: habitual) "No, (I) still will not do it." (still: future) Negative ている: (2) いいえ、まだしていない。 ...


4

The changes are basically regular based on the "original accent" of each word, but (1) these "original accents" are not set in stone; (2) people/groups speak differently; and (3) pitch accent, like any linguistic phenomenon, is constantly changing. (I'm going to skip the discussion of whether accent exists, etc., and just stipulate that the last "high" mora ...


4

This is 「する」の連用形+「やがる」 conjugated into て-form. Basically やがる does not do much aside from make the sentence rougher. Technically, it express a disdain for the action it attaches to, but personally I think it's not quite so strict on usage. You hear it very often in anime-talk where everyone is trying to sound rough and manly. Generally not in real life ...


4

One can hear しょって used often when talking about rucksacks or backpacks. リュックサックを[背負]{しょ}って[歩]{ある}く There isn't really much difference (しょう pronunciation is from せおう anyway), though, and people use them quite interchangeably. Though, sometimes the nuance of しょう can be such that it is [迷惑]{めいわく}... However, there is one situation, when one's talking ...


3

Tae Kim sometimes uses over-literal translations. I'm guessing the one that confused you was "As for me, not buy" (私は買わない). Without context, this could mean: 1) A specific statement about the future: I'm not going to buy/I won't buy (thing we were talking about) 2) A more general statement about your habits: I don't buy (thing we were talking about)


3

Conjunctive form is just a label. It tells you about one of the most common uses of the -te form, but it's not a complete definition. Let's take a look at the relevant sense in 大辞林, a Japanese dictionary: 命令・依頼を表す。「てよ」「てね」の形をとることもある。 Translated, this says that it expresses a command or request, and that it can also take the forms てよ and てね. (In ...


3

This is only my own gut feeling, but I'm fairly certain the distinction involves whether or not the verb produces an object (not grammatical object!) in a time-dependent state. 焼きたて, for example, refers to baked goods that are fresh out of the oven and thus still quite warm - they haven't cooled yet. ペンキ塗りたて refers to something that's been very recently ...


3

To my knowledge, this is historically shrouded in mystery, so there is no authoritative answer. (I'd be very interested in hearing one myself.) This page speculates (in, unfortunately, a very authoritative tone, yet with no citations...) that the negation of ある (あらない) did at one point exist, but was discarded for the antonym of ある (ない). (N.B., we do at ...


3

What I've read regarding the 見える、見られる and 聞こえる、聞ける doesn't appear to have been mentioned here at all and I think it's probably the clearest explanation. 見える - something comes into view 聞こえる - something can be heard Both of these describe sights/sounds that can be sensed regardless of the speaker's volition, e.g. if you look out the window you can see the ...


3

It's true that 〜(ら)れる is often referred to as a "passive" form because that's one of its main uses, but it has other uses as well. They can be divided into four categories: 受身 - passive (most common) 可能 - potential 尊敬 - honorific 自発 - spontaneous (least common) This is an example of the potential use of 〜(ら)れる, here inflected to the negative 〜れない, ...


2

出来る is the potential form (〜えます form, if you will) of する. As such, in common usage the best practice is to use the native potential form for all non-する verbs and できる for the rest. Proper construction of the potential form is as follows: Type I (〜う) verbs: Change -u to -eる (e.g. 行く => 行ける). This ending can also be further inflected (e.g. 行けます、行けない, etc.) ...


2

Short answer: 得{え}る or うる is more literary. ことができる is slightly more formal than られる and both fit for everyday use. ことができる and られる can only be used to describe humans' ability so they don't fit well with non-volitional verbs (無意志動詞). える or うる can also be used to describe possibility. E.g. ×あられる ○あり得る Both ことができる and られる can be used when you are not ...


2

分かる is never used as 分かれる, right? Because 分かる is already a potential-form verb, according to my Japanese grammar dictionary. >> Right. You don't say 分かれる to mean "can understand". About なる: can it be conjugated as なれる? >> Yes, the potential form of なる is なれる. Or how about ならせる? For example, 青くならせる--make it blue. >>ならせる is the causative form of なる. ...


2

AないでB permits two readings, the 'means' reading (accomplish B by doing A), and the conjunction reading (A and B). AなくてB only permits the conjunction reading (A and B). Some painfully literal interpretations... 食べなくてください 'Not eat and give to me' 食べないでください 'Not eat and give to me' 'Give to me by not eating' I think it is the "Give to me by ...


2

One of a few aspects of the term that I learned from my own question on 立{た}つ is that it can contain a concept of "emergence", in the sense of "to become evident". Not necessarily a deliberate creation, but in some sense that there is a result after a process. Thus, in the examples you give, you can see in the correct usages that something comes of the ...


1

There is some children's game, where one player positions his hand in front of the other players face, pointing into the four directions up, down, left, right, according to a rhythm. The second player has to look into one direction. If he looks into the direction the finger points in, he loses. The rhythm is given by saying the following: 生まれたて, 一才, 二才, ...



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