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12

救われん is made of 救われる and the archaic suffix ん, which came out of む. む・ん had similar rôles to よう・おう today; that is to say, 救われん in modern style would be 救われよう or 救われるだろう. It is not related to the ん that comes out of ぬ, which is a strong or dialectal way of stating a negative. Additionally, as chocolate says in the comments, 祈り信じよ means 'Pray and believe', ...


8

That depends on context. (After/Once) I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きたら、猫にえさをやる。 (The order/sequence is) after I wake up, I feed my cat. or (Only) after I wake up, I feed my cat. 起きてから、猫にえさをやる。 (After) I wake up, (then) I feed my cat. 起きた後(で)、猫にえさをやる。 PS △ 起きると、猫にえさをやる。 is unnatural, especially for talking about your own actions. ...


8

Here's where 歩けなく comes from: Start with the verb 歩く, "to walk". Turn it into its potential form: 歩ける, "able to walk". Make it negative: 歩けない, "unable to walk". Turn the newly formed i-adjective into an adverb: 歩けなく. Now, なっちゃう is a shorter form of なって + しまう. なって, of course, is the -て form of なる, which means "to become". なる requires that the adjective ...


8

This 願わくば is a fixed expression fossilized long ago, and you just have to memorize it without thinking about it too much. It's a literary expression that corresponds to "Hopefully, ..." used as a sentence adverb. As pointed out in the comment, this is related to ク語法, a grammatical feature which had already dropped out of use more than 1000 years ago. It was ...


8

Well, it appears to me that you're confused with the transitivity of 止まる. While the English word "stop" is used both transitively (as in "I stopped the taxi.") and intransitively (as in "Then the taxi stopped."), 止まる is always intransitive. The transitive version is 止める, and its potential form is 止められる. So 俺は止まらない just means "I don't stop" or "I will never ...


8

Dictionaries say すぎる in this meaning is placed: after the 連用形 of a verb, like 動きすぎる after the stem of an i-adjective, like やさしすぎる and after the stem of a na-adjective, like しずかすぎる. つまらない is an adjective so I think つまらなすぎる is natural.  Generally, when すぎる is placed after ない: in the case of the adjective ない, it uses さ, like なさすぎる as you say in the case ...


8

To add to @Locksleyu's answer, 出す in "the continuative form of a verb (動詞の連用形) + 出す" can mean either: ㋐ そうすることによって外や表面に現れるようにする意を表す。「しぼり―・す」「見つけ―・す」 to make something reveal/appear outside or on the surface by doing the action, eg 「しぼり出す」(squeeze out) 「見つけ出す」(find out) or ㋑ その動作を始める意を表す。「降り―・す」「笑い―・す」 to start the action, eg 「降り出す」(start to ...


7

逃し is のがし from [逃]{のが}す. 逃しちゃった is a contraction of 逃してしまった. So this し is just okurigana, not a standalone particle.


7

It's direct past き + question か (see the 係助詞 one). The particle か causes 係【かか】り結【むす】び phenomenon, which makes the sentence verb end in 連体形 no matter where か attaches to in the sentence. In the link about き above you can see its 連体形 is し.


6

These examples are correct: てんきは あつくない です。 てんきは あつかった です。 てんきは あつくなかった です。 However, the です on the end just serves to add politeness. It does not have the same function as the だ/です which follows a noun (i.e. am/is etc.). These example are all incorrect: てんきは あつい じゃありません。 てんきは あつい でした。 てんきは あつい じゃありませんでした。 In English we say "it ...


6

The ~てえ is an informal, masculine version of ~たい, "want to~~". たい is a 助動詞. The な is a 終助詞(sentence-ending particle). You can parse the sentence this way: 「稼いで、いい車(に)乗って、いい女(を)抱きてえな。」と身の内をたぎらせていたのか。 Example: 食いたい --> 食いてえ (食いてぇ、食いてー) 結婚したい --> 結婚してえ (結婚してぇ、結婚してー) Compare: 知らない --> 知らねえ (知らねぇ、知らねー) うるさい --> うるせえ (うるせぇ、うるせー)


6

「答{こた}えられる」 has three different usages and meanings. Honorific: Used when describing someone higher up answering. 「その質問{しつもん}にはスミス様{さま}が答えられました。」 = "Mr. Smith (kindly) answered the question." Potential: Used to express "can answer" or "to be able to answer". 「その質問は難{むずか}しすぎて答えられません。」 = "That question is too difficult (for me) to ...


6

This is the [命令形]{めい・れい・けい} - imperative form. It translates more like O dream boat, go/move on to the shore of tomorrow Which is almost what you have. The difference is that the singer is addressing the boat (夢の船よ), not saying "go on" the boat.


6

There are five honorific (subsidiary) verbs of almost r-consonant (type I) conjugation that have very peculiar style of irregularity, ending in い in 命令形 (command form) and before ます. plain form   regular masu-stem   masu(-only)-stem  command form いらっしゃる  いらっしゃり-たい  いらっしゃい-ます  いらっしゃい おっしゃる    おっしゃり-たい   おっしゃい-ます   おっしゃい くださる      くださり-たい    ください-ます    ください ...


6

To break it down, はじめまして is the て form of はじめます, and はじめます is the polite form of はじめる. はじめまして is a fixed expression. You'll see ~~まして in some fixed expressions such as: あけましておめでとうございます。-- Happy new year. どういたしまして。-- You are welcome. as well as in polite/formal speech or writing such as: ご来店くださいまして、誠にありがとうございます。 -- Thank you for ...


5

I'm going to try to do two things in this answer. First, I'm going to try to address the tangle of terms and theories that have got you confused. (So this answer will unfortunately be rather long!) Second, I'll try to address the specific question of 誘う. Feel free to skip any section that doesn't look immediately helpful :-) What do '-u verb' and '-...


5

This may be too obvious to OP, but we can use られる and say like this: その本{ほん}を読んで{よんで}みられると良い{よい}でしょう。 食べて{たべて}みられることをお勧め{おすすめ}します。 正直{しょうじき}に言って{いって}みられてはどうですか。 But I recommend that you try to apply honorifics to the main verb (these are more common, and perhaps politer, too): その本{ほん}をお読み{およみ}になってみると良い{よい}でしょう。 召し{めし}上が{あが}ってみることをお勧め{おすすめ}します。 正直{しょうじき}...


5

Just copied & pasted from my half-year-old answer (though the question itself isn't a duplicate): Though I translated 日本語を話す into "speak Japanese", the verb doesn't have "be able to speak" sense, so every time you have to explicitly use potential form when you question about ability. 日本語が話せますか? Do you speak Japanese? compared ...


5

The 問われ is not modifying the ロレンス. 連用形 of 用言 can be used to connect clauses or sentences like て形. Here the 連用形 「問われ」 is connecting two clauses/sentences: 「(ロレンスは)不機嫌な顔でまたも逆に問われ(る)」 and 「ロレンスはたじろいでしまう」. You can replace the 連用形 「問われ」 with the て形 「問われて」 without changing the meaning: 不機嫌な顔でまたも逆に問われロレンスはたじろいでしまうが・・・ ≒ 不機嫌な顔でまたも逆に問われて(、)ロレンスはたじろいでしまうが・・・ ...


5

「ありまして」is just a really polite form of 「あって」. In the standard polite sentence, only the final verb is put into the polite -ます form, while the rest are in the regular dictionary forms: 朝ご飯を食べてシャワーを浴びました。 While often overkill, it is possible to put the other connecting verbs into the -ます form as well. The resulting「まして」form has the same function as the ...


5

In your example 救い is not an adjective, but rather the pre-masu form of 救う, "to save". The grammar is the normal pattern of "pre-masu form" + "出す". However, rather than thinking of 救い出す as meaning "to start to save", I think it's better to just think of it as a separate verb, as shown in the dictionary. Based on this dictionary definitions, it mostly means ...


4

「謝{あやま}んなくったっていいんだよ。」 Needless to say, this is colloquial speech which uses what I call the "two distinct hallmarks" of colloquial speech -- 「ん」 and the small 「っ」. Now, watch the hallmarks disappear instantly as I put the phrase into the "dictionary" form. 「謝らなくてもいいのですよ」 In Kanto (and even a larger area because of TV), 「ら」 often changes to 「ん」 in ...


4

This is not meant as a rigorous translation template, but just a simplified illustration of the conceptual differences in your example: P すれば Q → If P, Q will happen P したら Q → When P, Q will happen P すると Q → P, and Q happens 電気を消す → 暗くなる 電気を消せば〜 (If I turn off the light, it will get dark) 電気を消したら〜 (When I turn off the light, it will get dark) 電気を消すと〜 (...


4

Referencing the answer here: The 「ない」s in 「食べない」 and 「多くない」 are different. The first is an auxiliary verb, and the second is an adjective. It seems the "traditionally correct" way is to first add the 「さ」 in the case of the adjective, and to directly attach 「すぎる」 in the case of the auxiliary verb. For example, as you heard: おもしろくなさすぎる 知らなすぎる ...


4

Sometimes, one needs to take a statement by Tae Kim with a grain of salt. Kim probably knows better than 99.9 % of all Japanese-learners, but still he is not a native speaker. The short form is indeed used quite heavily in informal, daily conversations among us native speakers. The more informal the speech, the more often you will hear the short form. If,...


4

仕事 is a noun and 仕事する is a verb. We have a lot of verbs like 仕事する where する is placed after a noun. And した is the past form of する. In addition, there are many verbs without する in Japanese. "I work" is translated as "仕事する" and "仕事をする". And "仕事はする" means "I work" and this "は" is used for emphasis and contrast. Same goes with 勉強する.


4

Masu-form as a noun can have various meanings depending on the original verb, and you may not be able to determine its meaning without referring to a dictionary. I generally recommend you memorize these, and avoid "coining" a new word unless you're really comfortable with Japanese. Person who does the action (≒ -er/-or) 酔っ払い drunkard のぞき peeper ヴァイオリン弾き ...


4

“食べてたい” is a colloquial and contracted form of - ”食べていたい - I want to keep eating.” Likewise, “寝てたい – I want to stay in bed,” “起きてたい ‐ I want to stay up (all night),” and “(一晩中)喋ってたい - I want to keep chatting (all night)” are used in place of “寝ていたい,” “起きていたい,” and “喋っていたい.” “…てたい” is colloquially spoken by both young and older people today, but to me it ...


4

「ろうそくが[置]{お}かれている。」 does not really mean "Candles are placed." as you stated. That would be 「ろうそくが置かれる。」. 「ろうそくが置かれている。」 can mean two different but related things. Passive Voice + Present Progress: "Candles are being placed." ← Someone is in the middle of placing candles. Passive Voice + State: "Candles have been placed." ← Candles were placed some ...


3

I think you could say like: (もし)それで(お)金持ちになれるのなら / なれるなら / なれたら / なれれば、問題(は)ないだろう。(or 構わないだろう / いいだろう etc. depending on the context.) それで = それ (that) + particle で (with; because of)



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