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11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


10

I think they have the same meaning. The basic difference is that 〜ようになる is commonly used after positive verbs, while 〜くなる is commonly used for negative verbs. Why? Well, negative verbs are morphologically shaped like adjectives, so they have the shorter 〜くなる form available, and that's what people use 99% of the time. That's not possible with positive ...


9

The verbs する and なる are a transitive-intransitive pair. When they follow the 〜く form of adjectives, they're kind of like "make" and "become": Aが    赤くなる "A becomes red"   (A turns red, blushes, etc.) Aが Bを 赤くする "A makes B red" The main difference here is that with なる the subject turns red, while with する the subject turns the object red. And なる ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


7

A modern perspective 〜ければ is the conditional ending for adjectives. Since the 〜ない form of verbs is shaped like an adjective, it uses adjective endings like 〜い and 〜ければ. That's it! From a modern perspective, there are no steps in-between. However, some grammars do take it one step further: they divide 〜ければ into 〜けれ (the hypothetical form of an ...


7

Regarding the etymology of the "please" すみません, according to the gogen-allguide entry, it is 済みません, not 住みません. As to whether 住みません is used, it is, but not terribly commonly. Basically it's only used when you really want the future tense: 太郎と一緒に住みませんか? "Won't you live together with Tarou?" 今週より後に、この家には誰も住みません。 "After this week, no one will ...


7

No, that's a ren’yōkei 連用形。 A ren’yōkei mid-sentence is for coordination, like English “he sat, and…”. You can think of it as a literary equivalent of 「こしをかけて、。。。」 Kateikei is what comes before -ba, so in this case it would be kakere-. Full table, with sample context: 未然形: 掛け-  kake- (-nai) 連用形: 掛け-  kake- (-masu) 終止形: 掛ける kake-ru (yo.) 連体形: 掛ける- ...


6

Your translation is close, but a little off. The pattern 〜わけ{では・じゃ}ない means "Does not (necessarily) mean that 〜". The ある here is for existence, not for possession. So it would translate as 独立系の映画館はシネコンと違っていて、チケットが安いのですが、どこにでもあるわけではありません。 → Independent theatres differ from big multiplexes; the tickets are cheap(er), but they are not (necessarily) ...


6

It's a little bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison: 建てられた   =  建てる + られる      + た (passive + past) 建てました   =  建てる +       ます + た ( polite + past) One verb has the polite auxiliary 〜ます, the other has the passive auxiliary 〜られる. Both verbs have the past auxiliary 〜た. But these are all separate variables, and we can use ...


6

The ~え is the casual form of elongating イ-adjectives into ~え. So in this case it is really 会いたい getting changed into 会いてえ. There may be another topic here about this form, but I can't find it. The ~ん is just the abbreviated ~の nominalizer. The same as ~んです.


5

〜なければ is a contraction of 〜なく+あれば. Of course the 〜ば form is a conditional and 〜なく is the "adverbial" form of a negation. So you can kind of translate it as "If it is/exists such that 〜 doesn't happen". 食べなければ` → If it's such that you don't eat → If you don't eat Related: Origin of ~なければ ならない


5

ぬ indicates the negative (as in Classical Japanese) and ~ませぬ is in fact the precursor of the modern ~ません. な is a variant of ね (see also What nuance brings "ですな"? and 「ね」 vs 「な」 in 「そうだね」 /「そうね」/ 「そうですね」) Since Manga often indicate the end of a sentence by a line (or column) break, rather than a period, I would bet that the sentence is ...


5

Answer Completely different. Reason First one's meaning is as same as you said. But second one, [新]{あたら}しい[大学]{だいがく}のビルを[建]{た}てました doesn't mean same. The point is a verb 建てる (build/construct). First one, 建て|られ|た is a passive and past tense form of 建てる. The section られ expresses the passive form and た expresses past tense. So, it can be translated in ...


5

I think ~そうで~ない is a pattern that means "seems like ~ but not ~". Often (but not always) you find the same predicate repeated. So: 行けそうで行けなかった場所 places it seemed like you could go, but you couldn't 解けそうで解けなかった謎 puzzles it seemed like you could solve, but you couldn't Less literally: 行けそうで行けなかった場所 places you were almost able to get to / ...


4

In the first sentence, it's passive causative, because the subject/topic of the sentence is "we (students)". A very literal translation would be 先生、どうして私たちはこんなにたくさん漢字を勉強させられるんですか。 Teacher, why are we made to study this many kanji? だれも勉強させていませんよ。だれのために勉強しているんですか。 Nobody is making you study. For whose sake are you studying? 自分です。 For our ...


4

According to this paper (http://ir.library.osaka-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/11094/6499/1/JLC_38_129.pdf, thank you snailboat) and my own intuitions, the core difference between the two is precondition fulfilment: -ていない is used simply for the lack of an action (or its completion), while -ない is used for the lack of of a precondition being fulfilled for that ...


4

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


4

Yes, all your assumptions about about the conjugations are correct. And far as comparing it to つもり, つもり simply means "intention (to do something)". It doesn't directly have anything to do with preparation or doing something beforehand. That it carries this mean in your example is incidental. With your 勉強しておく sentence, the preparation is explicit; with ...


4

The difference is very subtle, but there is a difference. With と言います, it sounds as if the myth is actually true or people somehow believe it. With と言われています, it sounds as if it is an actual myth. There is no rule that says you must use と言われています when indicating a myth. I've never played the game, but you can probably infer that the maiden actually believes ...


4

There is a way that ~もの can be applied to all verbs to "make them a noun", but it's not the way you're thinking of. If you have a verb (e.g. 走る【はしる】 "to run") and a noun (e.g. 人【ひと】 "person"), you can always take the dictionary form (辞書形【じしょけい】) of the verb and put it before the noun, to get a construction that means something like "[noun] that [verb]s" ...


4

The conditional -(r)eba has two forms: Following a consonant-stem verb, it takes the form of -eba: 行く   ik-u →  行けば   ik-eba 泳ぐ   oyog-u →  泳げば   oyog-eba 差す   sas-u →  差せば   sas-eba 放つ  hanat-u →  放てば  hanat-eba 死ぬ   sin-u →  死ねば   sin-eba 運ぶ  hakob-u →  運べば  hakob-eba 飲む   nom-u →  飲めば   nom-eba 走る  hasir-u →  走れば  hasir-eba 構う  ...


4

First, let us review the adjectives involved to make sure there is no confusion. Size vs. Quantity/Frequency: Size: 「[小]{ちい}さい」 = "small". 「[大]{おお}きい」 = "large" Quantity/Frequency: 「[少]{すく}ない」 = "few", "a little", "not frequent" 「[多]{おお}い」 = "many", "much", "frequent" Moving on to Grammar: To express "to get or become (adjective)" in ...


3

The answer up there you posted seems to make it seem pretty clear to me. 東北辺りでは これば?と言う人もいます 方言の一種ですね 読み仮名を付ける場合は「くれば」しかありません is translated to: Around Touhoku, there's some people who say 「これば」. It's just one type of local dialect. But when you write it down, the only correct way is 「くれば」。 So in other words, if you are in 東北 and say 「これば」you will be ...


3

The answer is basically no. You can express any progressive actions with (adverbal form) + つつある, which was created to translate exactly English progressive forms, though it's not frequently used in everyday conversation. Speaking how to translate the examples you suggested to common expressions, "My friend is going to Europe now":私の友達は今ヨーロッパへ向かっている "The ...


3

見える To be visible, to be in sight. あそこに高{たか}い山{やま}が見える。 A tall mountain can be seen over there. 僕{ぼく}にはあなたが見える。 You are visible to me / I can see you. to look like. 僕にはその雲{くも}がわたあめに見える。 That cloud looks like cotton candy to me. 見える is about objects being visible and not so much about one's ability to to see them. Obviously, if an ...


3

It's a Classical Japanese particle, nowadays only used as frequent as "methinks". It means exactly what must not do in English, and attaches to Classical 未然形 of a verb or adjective (that is, the form which the negative -ず and -ぬ appends to). See: the entry of じ in a Japanese-Japanese dictionary


3

私は食べるのが好きです means "I like eating" and 食べるの functions as a noun but 行って(は) as in 金曜日、日本へ行っては思う is not a noun but an adverb or a verb in an adverbial form, and it means "Every friday I go to Japan and think". As for 金曜日、日本へ行っては思う, first, は is not a particle to denote the subject of the sentence here, so the sentence doesn't mean "the act of going make me ...



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