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11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


10

I think they have the same meaning. The basic difference is that 〜ようになる is commonly used after positive verbs, while 〜くなる is commonly used for negative verbs. Why? Well, negative verbs are morphologically shaped like adjectives, so they have the shorter 〜くなる form available, and that's what people use 99% of the time. That's not possible with positive ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


9

The verbs する and なる are a transitive-intransitive pair. When they follow the 〜く form of adjectives, they're kind of like "make" and "become": Aが    赤くなる "A becomes red"   (A turns red, blushes, etc.) Aが Bを 赤くする "A makes B red" The main difference here is that with なる the subject turns red, while with する the subject turns the object red. And なる ...


9

I think the correct form in standard Japanese is [来]{く}ればよかったのに, since Wiki says 仮定形 of 来る is くれ. I think こればよかったのに is a typo or an error. Maybe the person who wrote this uses a regional dialect and typed これば (unconsciously or carelessly?), and it was not converted into kanji so they just left it as it was.


7

There are many ways to say "after ...ing" in japanese. There is no one to one translation, since you can use different words as "after" depending one the overall meaning of the sentence. -て から One of the most common translations and one of the first one learns would be: -て から This shouldn't be confused with the reason-giving から which is not used ...


7

In English, the auxiliary verb do is a meaningless verb that is inserted for various reasons. For example, direct questions require an auxiliary verb in modern English:  1a. *Like you the movie?  1b. Do you like the movie? When you form an English question like this, the subject and auxiliary swap places. But the lexical verb like isn't ...


7

My Japanese dictionaries (岩波国語辞典 and 小学館現代国語例解辞典) both have an entry for 生い立ち but not for 生い立つ, and my 古語辞典(角川 and 旺文社) both have an entry for おひたつ but not for おひたち. So I think 生い立ち came from おひたつ, and maybe おひたつ/生い立つ is now almost obsolete? Because I have never seen it used as a verb.


7

A modern perspective 〜ければ is the conditional ending for adjectives. Since the 〜ない form of verbs is shaped like an adjective, it uses adjective endings like 〜い and 〜ければ. That's it! From a modern perspective, there are no steps in-between. However, some grammars do take it one step further: they divide 〜ければ into 〜けれ (the hypothetical form of an ...


6

Your translation is close, but a little off. The pattern 〜わけ{では・じゃ}ない means "Does not (necessarily) mean that 〜". The ある here is for existence, not for possession. So it would translate as 独立系の映画館はシネコンと違っていて、チケットが安いのですが、どこにでもあるわけではありません。 → Independent theatres differ from big multiplexes; the tickets are cheap(er), but they are not (necessarily) ...


6

It's a little bit of an apples-to-oranges comparison: 建てられた   =  建てる + られる      + た (passive + past) 建てました   =  建てる +       ます + た ( polite + past) One verb has the polite auxiliary 〜ます, the other has the passive auxiliary 〜られる. Both verbs have the past auxiliary 〜た. But these are all separate variables, and we can use ...


6

The ~え is the casual form of elongating イ-adjectives into ~え. So in this case it is really 会いたい getting changed into 会いてえ. There may be another topic here about this form, but I can't find it. The ~ん is just the abbreviated ~の nominalizer. The same as ~んです.


6

全然 began to be taught as only being followed by negatives between 1950 and 1960. As mentioned in in the comments above, とても can actually be, and very often is, used with negatives. And in colloquial Japanese, 全然+non-neg. is currently, and likely always has been, frequently used. In normal Japanese, you are correct in your presumption that double negatives ...


5

〜き is the classical form of the 連体形 of 形容詞. Sound changes caused き to turn into い for the modern 連体形 (and 終止形). 〜き works exactly like 〜い in modern Japanese, except it can't be at the end of sentences, it can only be in relative clauses: ○高き壁、x壁は高き No, any 形容詞 can end with 〜き in classical (or pseudo-classical) Japanese. いと is: an adverb (副詞), not a prefix ...


5

ぬ indicates the negative (as in Classical Japanese) and ~ませぬ is in fact the precursor of the modern ~ません. な is a variant of ね (see also What nuance brings "ですな"? and 「ね」 vs 「な」 in 「そうだね」 /「そうね」/ 「そうですね」) Since Manga often indicate the end of a sentence by a line (or column) break, rather than a period, I would bet that the sentence is ...


5

「[出向]{しゅっこう}する」 is the plain active voice form. 「出向させられる」 is the causative passive voice form. As far as what these two forms not only imply but explicitly express to the native speakers, there is a world of difference between them and therefore, they are rarely, if ever, interchangeable. That they might appear interchangeable in their English ...


5

I think ~そうで~ない is a pattern that means "seems like ~ but not ~". Often (but not always) you find the same predicate repeated. So: 行けそうで行けなかった場所 places it seemed like you could go, but you couldn't 解けそうで解けなかった謎 puzzles it seemed like you could solve, but you couldn't Less literally: 行けそうで行けなかった場所 places you were almost able to get to / ...


5

Answer Completely different. Reason First one's meaning is as same as you said. But second one, [新]{あたら}しい[大学]{だいがく}のビルを[建]{た}てました doesn't mean same. The point is a verb 建てる (build/construct). First one, 建て|られ|た is a passive and past tense form of 建てる. The section られ expresses the passive form and た expresses past tense. So, it can be translated in ...


5

〜なければ is a contraction of 〜なく+あれば. Of course the 〜ば form is a conditional and 〜なく is the "adverbial" form of a negation. So you can kind of translate it as "If it is/exists such that 〜 doesn't happen". 食べなければ` → If it's such that you don't eat → If you don't eat Related: Origin of ~なければ ならない


4

Almost! ←「[惜]{お}しい!」 in Japanese. The passive voice past is [支配]{しはい}された --- "was controlled". 支配されていた is passive voice past progressive --- "was being controlled"


4

I think both... 会話能力を持った初の人間型ロボットキロボが宇宙飛行士の若田幸一さんと国際宇宙ステーションで雑談した。 会話能力を持つ初の人間型ロボットキロボが宇宙飛行士の若田幸一さんと国際宇宙ステーションで雑談した。 ... would sound okay for the newspaper. These sound more formal/literary than... 会話能力を持っている初の人間型ロボットキロボが... ... to me. (I would use 持っている/持ってる/のある/がある if I was to say this in normal conversation.) Even if the sentence ended ...


4

The meaning of these two sentences is likely to be different. Plain negative: (1) いいえ、まだしない。 "No, (I) do not do it (habitually) yet." (yet: habitual) "No, (I) will not do it yet." (yet: habitual) "No, (I) still do not do it (habitually)." (still: habitual) "No, (I) still will not do it." (still: future) Negative ている: (2) いいえ、まだしていない。 ...


4

Are you talking about a website like Wiktionary? It appears that some sites which automatically generate conjugation charts treat "もっていく" as though it's a regular godan verb, but you're correct that it's もって + いく, and that いく conjugates as it normally does. It should be もっていって, not *もっていいて.


4

The changes are basically regular based on the "original accent" of each word, but (1) these "original accents" are not set in stone; (2) people/groups speak differently; and (3) pitch accent, like any linguistic phenomenon, is constantly changing. (I'm going to skip the discussion of whether accent exists, etc., and just stipulate that the last "high" mora ...


4

What I've read regarding the 見える、見られる and 聞こえる、聞ける doesn't appear to have been mentioned here at all and I think it's probably the clearest explanation. 見える - something comes into view 聞こえる - something can be heard Both of these describe sights/sounds that can be sensed regardless of the speaker's volition, e.g. if you look out the window you can see the ...


4

In the first sentence, it's passive causative, because the subject/topic of the sentence is "we (students)". A very literal translation would be 先生、どうして私たちはこんなにたくさん漢字を勉強させられるんですか。 Teacher, why are we made to study this many kanji? だれも勉強させていませんよ。だれのために勉強しているんですか。 Nobody is making you study. For whose sake are you studying? 自分です。 For our ...


4

According to this paper (http://ir.library.osaka-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/11094/6499/1/JLC_38_129.pdf, thank you snailboat) and my own intuitions, the core difference between the two is precondition fulfilment: -ていない is used simply for the lack of an action (or its completion), while -ない is used for the lack of of a precondition being fulfilled for that ...


4

The difference is very subtle, but there is a difference. With と言います, it sounds as if the myth is actually true or people somehow believe it. With と言われています, it sounds as if it is an actual myth. There is no rule that says you must use と言われています when indicating a myth. I've never played the game, but you can probably infer that the maiden actually believes ...


4

Yes, all your assumptions about about the conjugations are correct. And far as comparing it to つもり, つもり simply means "intention (to do something)". It doesn't directly have anything to do with preparation or doing something beforehand. That it carries this mean in your example is incidental. With your 勉強しておく sentence, the preparation is explicit; with ...


4

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...



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