Hot answers tagged

6

丁寧語 is about who you are talking to. Its use is to be polite to your listener/reader. 尊敬語/謙譲語 are about who you are talking about. These patterns show respect to the agent. 謙譲語 to lower yourself (or someone on the same side as you vis-a-vis your listener) and 尊敬語 to raise the person you're talking about. Thus, you can say 先生からみかんをいただいた。 or ...


5

This happens all the time in 時代劇{じだいげき}: 「黒田と申{もう}す」 - I am called Kuroda 「仰{おお}せの通{とお}りに致{いた}す」 - (I) shall do just as (you) have spoken


4

知る means something more akin to "get to know". So by saying 電話番号を知ります you're saying that you "are getting to know something ", you don't know it yet. So if you're asking whether someone knows a number, then you have to use the form that reflects that current state of things. That's why you say 電話番号を知っています to mean you know something. This works very ...


4

I can think of three cases: Speaking casually to a friend about a 先生 or other respected figure, as virmaior pointed out In older materials, or materials set in older settings like 時代劇 In written materials like newspapers The common thread here is a difference between the two types of polite language. 敬語 is about reinforcing the social order: respecting ...


3

First we have to make a distinction between 日本語教育 and 国語教育 (which follows 学校文法). In 日本語教育 the te-form always includes the て/で part. In 国語教育 the te-form is not recognized, as it is just considered to be a perverse version of the 連用形 and not an actual newly developed form. I think there are two reasons: Simplification of the grammar 「て形」を独立した活用形の一つと考えると、「...


2

As you showed in the chart, The pre-ます-form is regular 五段動詞の連用形 The pre-て-form is(五段動詞の連用形)+(音便) So I think it is a correct and helpful distinction from a phrase-production perspective. Especially for learners asking questions like, "How do I say 'He is eating an apple'?" But Japanese grammarians are likely more considered with the 音便 itself from ...


1

"するどく- 鋭くin 漢字 and かな)" is an inflection of 鋭い. It has nothin to do with "毒," which is a stand-alone noun. The adjectives such as "するどい - sharp," "辛どい - painful," "くどい - insistent," "悪どい - malicious" inflect into adverbs like, "するどく," "辛どく," "くどく," and "悪どく," and adjectives like "珍しい - unusual,""憎らしい - hateful," "重々しい - heavy, " inflect into adverbs as "珍しく,...


1

In earlier time, say pre- or mid-war Japan, people were more conscious of whom, when and where they should use 丁寧語, 謙譲語, 尊敬語 and distinction of their usages. But it seems people are not so serious today in observing the rules of the verbal locutions of expressing politeness, humiliation and respect. In fact, there is a prevailing phenomenon of “ため口をきく” ...


1

I fear this is less an answer by itself (you have received two very good ones already), but rather a strongly related aside. Most materials for Japanese language learners take a one-size-fits-all approach that roughly equates to "favor immediate (safe) usability (= production)". This is why nearly all common text books teach ~ます first instead of teaching ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible