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7

A modern perspective 〜ければ is the conditional ending for adjectives. Since the 〜ない form of verbs is shaped like an adjective, it uses adjective endings like 〜い and 〜ければ. That's it! From a modern perspective, there are no steps in-between. However, some grammars do take it one step further: they divide 〜ければ into 〜けれ (the hypothetical form of an ...


5

〜なければ is a contraction of 〜なく+あれば. Of course the 〜ば form is a conditional and 〜なく is the "adverbial" form of a negation. So you can kind of translate it as "If it is/exists such that 〜 doesn't happen". 食べなければ` → If it's such that you don't eat → If you don't eat Related: Origin of ~なければ ならない


4

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


4

Yes, all your assumptions about about the conjugations are correct. And far as comparing it to つもり, つもり simply means "intention (to do something)". It doesn't directly have anything to do with preparation or doing something beforehand. That it carries this mean in your example is incidental. With your 勉強しておく sentence, the preparation is explicit; with ...


4

The difference is very subtle, but there is a difference. With と言います, it sounds as if the myth is actually true or people somehow believe it. With と言われています, it sounds as if it is an actual myth. There is no rule that says you must use と言われています when indicating a myth. I've never played the game, but you can probably infer that the maiden actually believes ...


2

It might help to think about what's going on with 「ておく」 and 「とく」 in romaji. " 勉強 shiteoku " The we just drop the 'e' ('cause we're cool kids)... " 勉強 shitoku " The same kind of thing happens all the time with 「い」"i" 「何食べている?」 becomes 「何たべてる?」 (just drop the 「い」) "Nani tabeteiru?" becomes "Nani tabeteru?" (Just drop the 'i') This can seem more ...


2

There are a lot of ways that these over-generalizations occur doing child language acquisition. They do in fact occur -- often -- in Japanese. In fact, I think it is safe to say that they occur in every language. There's a rather in depth list of examples of some of these over-generalizations available in the papers referenced below. I will describe one ...



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