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30

と, ば: The main clause must be a constant non-volitional reaction to the conditional clause unless the conditional clause shows state or if the subjects of the two clauses differ. お金を入れてボタンを押すと、切符が出ます。 'When you put in money and press the button, a ticket will come out.' 春になると、観光客が増えます。 'When spring arrives, tourists increase.' ...


19

The -ou/-you form does have a negative counterpart, but it's considered rather literary, and in any case never used in a cohortative meaning ("Let's X"). That form is the なかろう form, e.g.: 食べなかろう, which means "[He/I/etc.] probably wouldn't eat." and is equivalent to the more colloquial form "食べないだろう". I think the most common simple way to express the meaning ...


19

しとく comes from しておく, which in turn comes from して置く. The literal translation of して置く would be, "do it, and then put [the results]". Basically it describes the act of doing something and storing the result of that so that when that result becomes useful, you can use it. EDIT: This literal meaning changed overtime (I presume) and しておく became to mean "do ...


18

The most commonly known ぬ is the helper verb of negation, similar to ない. It is, like ない, added to the [未然形]{みぜんけい}-base of a verb: [立]{た}たぬ=立たない=does not stand. However, in this case we have ぬ being added to 立ち, and there's a different story behind it. Note how the English wikipedia entry for [風]{かぜ}[立]{た}ちぬ says "The wind rises", with no negative meaning ...


17

行ったら - "if you (happen to) go" (simple possibility) 行くなら - "if you're going (anyway)" (often in the sense of while you're at it) 行けば - "if you('d) go" (emphasis on the condition that must be fulfilled before something happens) 行くと - "when you go" ("…you'll find that…", focuses on what happens when the condition is fulfilled) 行くんだったら - "if you're about to ...


17

Agglutinative languages are somewhat harder to understand than other categories. it's easy to see what the difference between synthetic fusional languages (like Latin or Russian) to isolating ones (such as Chinese or English): in isolating languages you only have words mixed with each other in various ways, but no morphology (or at least not very much of it, ...


14

According to Tae Kim, there is a negative volitional form, but it is archaic and formal, so you're better off using the modern expressions given by the other answers. However, it does show up every now and then (トキ in 北斗の拳 seems to like using it), and it's a pretty simple conjugation, so it's worth knowing. To form the negative volitional, you add まい to ...


14

An English translation of the link provided by Tsuyoshi Ito: Preface: It is common knowledge that the verb 知る is an exceptional verb amongst verbs that take the ~ている form. ~ている is appended to the subject-changing verb and expresses the state after the change; its corresponding negated form is expressed as ~ていない. But contrary to expectations, the negated ...


13

In the modern form, ず is only used as an adverbial (食べずに出る leave without eating). ぬ can replace ない. In 文語, the grammar used in writing until the reformations after WWII and still at least partially in many forms of poetry, songs, and very formal documents, the use of ず and ぬ was/is grammatically constrained in a manner no longer present in modern Japanese. ぬ ...


13

In modern Japanese, instead of the conjugation [未然形]{みぜんけい}+[無]{な}い, another word is used to express the plain negative, namely 無い. This a process called suppletion, supplying a certain conjugational form with a different word. It exists in English as well. You don't say good and gooder, you talk about better, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *bhAd- ...


12

I will answer the two questions separately. How to make the form of i-adjectives before ございます Grammatically はよう, ありがとう, めでとう, たのしゅう, おいしゅう in these examples are called ウ音便 (うおんびん) of はやく, ありがたく, めでたく, たのしく, おいしく, respectively. 音便 (おんびん) means the form modified for easy pronunciation. The actual form of ウ音便 of an i-adjective depends on the vowel before く ...


11

Your "usual rule" is incomplete. It should be: drop -i if resulting is a single mora in length, add -sa add -sou. Hence, nai: na na + sa na + sa + sou --> nasasou. atui: atu (not applicable) atu + sou --> atusou.


11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


10

It's the strongest, tersest form of negative. It always follows a plain form verb. I have no idea of the origin; it's pretty old though:) Regarding the origin, it goes back to at least the 8th century in this form: 活用語の終止形に付いて、「~するな」と禁止する意をあらわす。現代口語に継承されている。 大和道は雲隠れたりしかれども吾が振る袖をなめしと思ふな(万葉集、筑紫娘子) こちふかば匂ひおこせよ梅の花あるじなしとて春を忘るな(拾遺集、菅原道真) Source: ...


10

In classical Japanese, 死ぬ is an irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). Its principal parts are as follows: Irrealis (未然形): 死な〜 Continuative (連用形): 死に〜 Predicative (終止形): 死ぬ Attributive (連体形): 死ぬる Realis (已然形): 死ぬれ〜 Imperative (命令形): 死ね The difference between the predicative and attributive forms is roughly analogous to the difference between 〜だ and 〜な for the ...


10

[See this question, which deals with the same pattern when used with verbs. I'll adapt my answer from that question to answer yours.] -そう after the stem of a adjective means "looking/sounding as if ___." おいしそう means "it looks as if it will be delicious." It is similar to constructions like おいしいみたい or おいしいよう, but -そう emphasizes evidence of the senses rather ...


10

そう after the plain form of a verb indicates you are reporting secondhand information, rather than your own direct observations. 行けるそう means "it is said that it can go." The negative form is -ないそう: 降らないそうです "They say it won't rain." -そう after the stem (-ます form) of a verb means "looking/sounding as if ___." 行けそう means "it looks as if it can go." It is ...


10

Jikan wa deru koto desu If it is written in Japanese, 「時間は出る事です」. We don't say it.  One, is this correct? No. If you mean It's time to leave, 「もう出る時間です」 should be fine. Two, when translating infinitives from English to Japanese is the proper conversion: to [verb] -> [verb] koto? Not always. In addition to 名詞的用法, there are 形容詞的用法 and 副詞的用法. ...


10

As phoenixheart6 wrote, suffix -さ makes a noun from an adjective. I am not sure if you have a problem with this. But it seems that you have a misunderstanding about the role of に. In a sentence 品揃えの多さについつい買い込んでしまった。 に means “because of.” 買い込む means “to buy many things.” Therefore, it means: Because of the variety of goods they sell, I ended up ...


10

I think they have the same meaning. The basic difference is that 〜ようになる is commonly used after positive verbs, while 〜くなる is commonly used for negative verbs. Why? Well, negative verbs are morphologically shaped like adjectives, so they have the shorter 〜くなる form available, and that's what people use 99% of the time. That's not possible with positive ...


9

First, let me comment on your three examples: です ⇔ であります We discussed です before. According to 大辞林, there are several theories, but we don't know its etymology for sure. This is one of the three theories it lists, though. I've read that でございます may be more likely, but I never read an explanation why, so I won't make that assertion here. じゃない ⇔ ...


9

As others have said, this is probably really ~やしない, which is transmutation of ~はしない. What this suffix does is usually one of two things: It makes the verb a topic (with は) and then negate it. This is used to bring up the event described by the verb and then saying it won't happen (or isn't happening, have never happened - you get the point). From the ...


9

First, the ~てしまう construction can convey a sense of regret, which the 切る verb suffix cannot: 花瓶を落として割ってしまった。 I dropped the vase and [regrettably] broke it. 花瓶を落として割り切った。 (unnatural) When used in constructions expressing the completion or finishing of an action, 切る tends to sound best with actions that can be measured on a scale, but there's a lot ...


9

I liked the practical nature of the other answers, here's a more precise explanation I posted under a dupe thread. Yeah, these are not so easy as there is a complex set of circumstances where you can use one over the other. I'll try to cover the most common usages and differences. ~ば is used in the case of a consistent relationship of cause and effect. ...


9

1) Jikan wa deru koto desu means "Time is leaving". If you want to say "It's time to leave", just say 時間です. The "to leave" is kind of implied depending on your situation. But if you want to explicitly add it in, you can say (もう)出る/出かける/帰る 時間 です/になった。 → (It's already (become)) time to leave/go/go out. 2) To translate infinitives, just use the ...


9

“Are they used?” and “Are they acceptable?” are different questions. The regular forms such as お借りします and お食べになります are used, but they are less formal than the irregular forms such as 拝借します and 召し上がります. Whether the less formal expressions are acceptable or not depends on how formally you want to speak. By the way, you are confusing grammatical terms ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


9

The verbs する and なる are a transitive-intransitive pair. When they follow the 〜く form of adjectives, they're kind of like "make" and "become": Aが    赤くなる "A becomes red"   (A turns red, blushes, etc.) Aが Bを 赤くする "A makes B red" The main difference here is that with なる the subject turns red, while with する the subject turns the object red. And なる ...


8

飲んでましょう is a colloquial form for 飲んでいましょう. In general, abbreviating ~ている to ~てる is common in colloquial speech. Whether you count colloquial expressions as “legal” or not is up to you. Now what is the difference between 飲んで(い)ましょう and 飲みましょう? As I understand it, the former implies that the suggested action of drinking is temporary. I think that ...



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