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Let's modernize it first. かみなりが 少し響いて 空に雲がさして曇り 雨でも降らないか… 君を留めよう. I wonder if thunder echoes weak, cloud interferes with the sky and rain or something falls. (Then,) I'll keep you here.


Yes, they're the 未然形 of す, followed by the 連体形 of the so-called 完了の「り」 in 文語. (It has nothing to do with the causative auxiliary verb せる used today.) In modern Japanese 口語, 専売特許に違背せる物品 ≒ 専売特許に違反した物品 和英字書を編集せるは… ≒ 和英辞書を編集したのは… Also see this chiebukuro Q&A.


(もっと詳しい人もいると思うので、この回答は参考程度にお願いします…) Short Answer: It can be interpreted in both ways. Long Answer: 「[noun] + を + 如何せん」 is a common pattern which means 「[noun]をどうしよう」 in modern Japanese, or "What can be done with [noun]?" in English. Usually it implies nothing can be done, or どうしようもない. Of course, を here is an object marker. In old Japanese, nominalizer こと ...


生きる → 未然形 → 生き + む(=ん) where む is a classical auxiliary verb often expressing volition or speculation. Here it isn't so different than simply saying 生きるために働く. 生きんが為に働く Assuming a generic subject: We work that we may live. We work so that we might live. We work so as to live.

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