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11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


8

Please note that the nature of writing using Chinese script often makes it impossible to know how the word was originally pronounced. Generally the only real way of knowing is by having glosses written in kana. In Old Japanese, neither hiragana nor katakana were yet invented, though man'yoogana does indicate the pronunciation. That said, I can only find ...


7

足れり is basically the Old/Middle Japanese version of what in Modern Japanese would be 足りている. It consists of 足り (the ren'youkei of 足る) plus あり (modern ある). (It's not 足りあり because of Old Japanese's vowel cluster mergers: /ia/ > /e/.) Modern Japanese 足りている has exactly the same structure as the Middle Japanese version, just with a different conjunction form (-て ...


6

Conventions: I will use 漢字 to represent Chinese words, and かな or [振り仮名]{ふりがな} to represent Japanese words. なす/なる and “to make” 為 is related to (and might have been the same as) 偽, “to forge”. Both なす and なる happens to translate to “to make” in Chinese. When you make “an object” you produce it. Sometimes the active and passive distinction in Chinese is not ...


5

In classical Japanese, the 終助詞 「か」 and 「かな」 are always preceded by the 連体形. E.g., 限りなく遠くも来にけるかな。 (Side note: The classical meaning of 「かな」 is slightly different from the modern one. It is more like 「だなあ」.) So, parsing those lyrics: [[[[[[開いたばかりの花]が散る]の]を見ていた]木立]の遣る瀬無き]かな。 That final の is actually a GA-NO converted が, which is allowed because the ...


4

I suspect this might be an example of poetic license or even contraction. Note that all of the 思ふ instances above follow on another mora from the お行, leaving open the possibility that をしと思{おも}ふ, for example, was actually read as をしともふ, thus producing the expected mora count. I note too that 思う has a pitch pattern of おもう{LHL}, making the お effectively ...


4

For that, you might have to ask on a Chinese etymology site -- both meanings, "to do" and "because of", can apparently be ascribed to the underlying Chinese term 為: with the reading wéi for "to do", and the reading wèi for "because of". See the entries on MDBG and Mandarin Tools. In most cases of Chinese characters used in Japanese, the various kun'yomi ...


4

Adjective Endings い and き All the modern い adjectives used to have the following endings (more at the JA Wikipedia article, for those who can read Japanese): 未然形{みぜんけい} (imperfective): く 連用形{れんようけい} (adverbial): く 終止形{しゅうしけい} (terminal): し 連体形{れんようけい} (adnominal): き 已然形{いぜんけい} (perfective): けれ 命令形{めいれいけい} (imperative): - The 未然形 and 連用形 are the same in ...


4

Actually 邪 has a long history of being used for its sound alone, going back at least to the Warring States Shakespeare, Zhuangzi: 天之蒼蒼、其正色邪。其遠而無所至極邪。 The sky looks very blue. Is that its real color, or is it because it is so far away and has no end? [tr. Burton Watson] Here the character 邪 is twice used simply to represent the sound of asking a ...


3

According to a dictionary, この語の成立については未詳。一説に「ぬあった」の転かともいう source


2

"Does anyone know what to call the outdated, high form of language which will say for example "ならぬ" rather than "ならない" or more accurately "だめだ"?" We call it 「[文語体]{ぶんごたい}」 or 「文語[調]{ちょう}」("Literal style") as opposed to 「[口語体]{こうごたい}」 or 「口語調」 ("Colloquial style"). "Specifically, I would like to know if there is a name for the dialect used by Kuchiki ...


2

The use of the 未然形 is quite limited. As 形容詞 don't conjugate like verbs, it's hard to say they have the 未然形. But as far as I know, there are several theories claiming 形容詞 do have 未然形: く is the 未然形. ~くば resembles 動詞未然形+ば, which is the conditional from. く is the 未然形. ~くない resembles 動詞未然形+ない, which is the negative form. け is the 未然形. ~けく resembles 動詞未然形+く, ...


1

~くれ The word, くれ, is a special word. The original form of this is くれる (呉れる) and the imperative form is くれろ, while it's a deprecated expression. According to Daijirin: 〔命令形は「くれ」が普通〕 その動作者{どうさしゃ}が話{はな}し手{て}または話題{わだい}の人物{じんぶつ}のために何{なん}らかの動作{どうさ}をすることを表{あらわ}す (Translation: [くれ is general in imperative form] This means that the hearer do ...


1

There are two conjugation patterns for 形容詞, as shown in the Japanese Wikipedia article here. The second カリ活用 pattern has more distinct forms. The 未然形 with negative here would be ~からず, or with the presumptive, ~かろう. I'm less familiar with these forms, but the 命令形 persists even in modern Japanese in phrases like 遅かれ早かれ "sooner or later". Past there, whether ...


1

I'm not really for the suggested translation, so I'm going to translate it myself. Although other people and I will be gone, the events in the songs will remain. Even if time shifts and things leave, (even if) delights and sorrows come and go, (how could I deny) that the characters of this song will be there If the threads of green willows never ...



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