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8

Actually 邪 has a long history of being used for its sound alone, going back at least to the Warring States Shakespeare, Zhuangzi: 天之蒼蒼、其正色邪。其遠而無所至極邪。 The sky looks very blue. Is that its real color, or is it because it is so far away and has no end? [tr. Burton Watson] Here the character 邪 is twice used simply to represent the sound of asking a ...


7

Using ハ for particle "wa" was a part of their proper style to write official documents or letters at that time. The writing style of 日米和親条約 in your image is [候文]{そうろう・ぶん}, which was a formal writing style during the Edo period. If you would read other 候文 documents or letters written in the Edo period, you would notice that ハ is almost always used for ...


6

I don't know if @l'électeur's comments were rhetorical or otherwise, but I only find the poem as 若葉 (not 落葉) and written by 蕪村 (not 芭蕉). Here's a more reliable reference from 青空文庫 蕪村には直ちに若葉を詠じたるもの十余句あり。皆若葉の趣味を発揮せり。例、 [...] をちこちに滝の音聞く若葉かな [...] It might not be relevant any longer, but the historical spelling for the お in おちる was just お, and not ...


6

This article seems to show what the original poem is like. われにな問ひそ今の世と The original text goes like this. The な V そ sandwich (V takes 連用形 except for す and 来 become 未然形, せ and こ) is a common Classical pattern for negative imperative "please don't", which is given a detailed explanation in Japanese dictionary. われは明治の兒ならずや negative + 係助詞 や (no ...


5

The document follows consistent rules, if you look at it more closely. Firstly, the document itself is actually highly cursive, both in its kanji and hiragana. After this time and up until 1945, it became standard for treaties and formal documents to be written exclusively in kanji and katakana. The fact that this uses hiragana is a result of its cursive ...


5

The first phrase is nominal. It is composed of 接頭語(prefix)「御」 and 名詞(noun)「来駕」. The numbers in the right side represent the reading order of 漢字. The second phrase is composed of a verb(動詞)「[成]{な}す」, a subsidiary verb(補助動詞)「[下]{くだ}さる」 and an auxiliary verb(助動詞)「たい」. The reading order of the second phrase is not simple top-to-down. This kind of reading ...


4

Yes, これ refers to かの筆にも言語にも言ひ尽し難き情趣の限なき振動のうちに幽かなる心霊の欷歔をたづね、縹渺たる音楽の愉楽に憧がれて自己観想の悲哀に誇る. Note that かの…誇る does not modify これ, but かの…誇る and これ are in apposition. What you got incorrectly is …に非ずや. や signifies a question, including a rhetorical question, which is the case here. So …に非ずや literally means …ではないか but it actually means …である.


3

Let's modernize it first. かみなりが 少し響いて 空に雲がさして曇り 雨でも降らないか… 君を留めよう. I wonder if thunder echoes weak, cloud interferes with the sky and rain or something falls. (Then,) I'll keep you here.


3

That's a phrase anyone younger than Sherlock Holmes never uses. It's an example of 候文{そうろうぶん}, which had been official writing style until Edo period but completely died out around WWII. Both the wording and orthography are as old as hills (literally). Despite its look, not much particles are omitted because most of them are embedded in the form of kanji in ...


3

To complement Avery's answer, one thing that may be worth investigating is that the Nihon Shoki has a particular phonetic orthography for Japanese (so-called Man’yōgana or ateji, which are directly based on Chinese and Korean phonetic use of kanji). Whereas the Kojiki and Man’yōshū phonograms are based on Early Middle Chinese (also the source of Japanese ...


2

This is a matter of fonts, not a matter of simplification. Much like depending on the font being displayed, a Latin alphabet "a" will either appear with or without the hook at the top, the font determines the exact appearance of the character 人. There are fonts that try to preserve handwriting for CJK characters that will display the 人 character in the way ...


2

Yes, they're the 未然形 of す, followed by the 連体形 of the so-called 完了の「り」 in 文語. (It has nothing to do with the causative auxiliary verb せる used today.) In modern Japanese 口語, 専売特許に違背せる物品 ≒ 専売特許に違反した物品 和英字書を編集せるは… ≒ 和英辞書を編集したのは… Also see this chiebukuro Q&A.


2

(もっと詳しい人もいると思うので、この回答は参考程度にお願いします…) Short Answer: It can be interpreted in both ways. Long Answer: 「[noun] + を + 如何せん」 is a common pattern which means 「[noun]をどうしよう」 in modern Japanese, or "What can be done with [noun]?" in English. Usually it implies nothing can be done, or どうしようもない. Of course, を here is an object marker. In old Japanese, nominalizer こと ...


2

生きる → 未然形 → 生き + む(=ん) where む is a classical auxiliary verb often expressing volition or speculation. Here it isn't so different than simply saying 生きるために働く. 生きんが為に働く Assuming a generic subject: We work that we may live. We work so that we might live. We work so as to live.


2

I offer my translation, made thanks to the community. Note: the names mentioned by the poet Nagai -- Dangiku, Ochi, Ichiyo, Koyo, Ryokuu, Encho, Shicho, Ryuson and Ogai Gyoshi -- were all contemporary poets, performers and figures of the Meiji period. For some of them, Nagai describes their falling into oblivion punningly, in a manner befitting their ...


2

In classical Japanese, "~ぞ + 連体形" and "~こそ + 已然形" are the patterns which basically emphasize the sentences. This grammatical rule is known as 係り結び. To put it simply, when ~ぞ or ~こそ appears in the middle of a sentence, that sentence have to end with 連体形 or 已然形 (of a verb/adjective), respectively. 雪降りけり。 (終止形) 雪ぞ降りける。 (ぞ + 連体形) 雪こそ降りけれ。 (こそ + 已然形) ...


2

Early stages of Japanese did not have relative clauses, but it was possible to modify nouns with attributive verbs (using contemporary lexicon/morphology for ease): 咲く丘 a hill where something grows I believe that from early stages, there was little restriction on the semantic role of 丘 in the action of 咲く, i.e. all this is really saying is "a hill that ...


2

案ずるより: rather than worrying 案ずる: to worry (archaic version of 案じる) ~より: than ~ 産むが: bearing (a baby) (is) 産む: to bear (a baby) が: (subject marker) 易し: easy (archaic version of 易しい) Since this is a proverb, 産む here is used to figuratively mean "to actually do something".



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