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20

Just want to add to @永劫回帰's answer, which is a good one explaining the origin of the verb form 「あり」. Prose/Composition Grammar vs. Other Sets of Grammar: While a sentence like 「[保育園]{ほいくえん}がある。」 or 「保育園があります。」 is just perfect if used in prose or compositions. Those contain not a single sign of wordiness or unnaturalness in them. After all, each sentence ...


15

The old 終止形 of ある was あり. That means that you could end sentences with あり. Nowadays, あり is to be considered as the antonym of なし. 保育園あり -- There is a nursery 保育園なし -- There is no nursery


15

It's a famous book called ぎやどぺかどる, a translation of Guía de Pecadores (or "The Sinner's Guide") by Jesuit mission in Japan. It reads: きやとへかとる 巻の二 (voicing marks unused) Guia do Pecador - Book 2 (title in Medieval Portuguese) What makes it hard to read is hentaigana, now obsolete historic alternate kana, used in the line as: きや登遍可と類 (hentaigana ...


9

“あり” is a 終止形 of “ある,” the same as “なし” and “ない” as mentioned by 永劫回帰. It can be compared with an English pair word, “Yes (we have) and No (we don’t have)”. The 漢語 version of “あり・なし” are “有・無”, both of which are commonly used. Here are some examples: 雀斑【そばかす】あり – have freckles. 欠点【けってん】あり(の商品) – (a product) with a flaw 曰【いわく】あり – have something with a ...


8

Neither is common. In fact, 戦いませば and 戦いますれば are almost never used in modern Japanese. You have to use 戦いましたら. I sometimes hear stereotyped samurai in samurai dramas say 戦いますれば. It's indeed "if (someone) fights" said in a polite way. It's "stereotyped samurai-ish speech", but I don't know whether old people actually talked like this. People never use it ...


7

It's direct past き + question か (see the 係助詞 one). The particle か causes 係【かか】り結【むす】び phenomenon, which makes the sentence verb end in 連体形 no matter where か attaches to in the sentence. In the link about き above you can see its 連体形 is し.


7

Using ハ for particle "wa" was a part of their proper style to write official documents or letters at that time. The writing style of 日米和親条約 in your image is [候文]{そうろう・ぶん}, which was a formal writing style during the Edo period. If you would read other 候文 documents or letters written in the Edo period, you would notice that ハ is almost always used for ...


7

In late middle Japanese, the actual class of い-adjectives was in fact subdivided into 2 classes, namely ク-adjectives and シク-adjectives. There is remnant of those adjectives even now, though there are mainly to be found in novels or songs in order to add a touch of old. Here, we have 懐かしき, it is the old 連体形 (the base you should use to modify a noun or clause)...


6

幾里 means “how many lis.” “Li” is a unit of distance, and 1里 is equal to 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) . 幾 means “how many, how much” as you ask an antique shop owner “これ幾らですか?-How much price is this?” It has nothing to do with the name of town and village. Thus 我れ幾里の路を共に往かむ means “How many miles should I tread (go) with you ahead the road?” Apparently this is an ...


6

This article seems to show what the original poem is like. われにな問ひそ今の世と The original text goes like this. The な V そ sandwich (V takes 連用形 except for す and 来 become 未然形, せ and こ) is a common Classical pattern for negative imperative "please don't", which is given a detailed explanation in Japanese dictionary. われは明治の兒ならずや negative + 係助詞 や (no ...


5

The first phrase is nominal. It is composed of 接頭語(prefix)「御」 and 名詞(noun)「来駕」. The numbers in the right side represent the reading order of 漢字. The second phrase is composed of a verb(動詞)「[成]{な}す」, a subsidiary verb(補助動詞)「[下]{くだ}さる」 and an auxiliary verb(助動詞)「たい」. The reading order of the second phrase is not simple top-to-down. This kind of reading ...


5

The document follows consistent rules, if you look at it more closely. Firstly, the document itself is actually highly cursive, both in its kanji and hiragana. After this time and up until 1945, it became standard for treaties and formal documents to be written exclusively in kanji and katakana. The fact that this uses hiragana is a result of its cursive ...


5

Let's modernize it first. かみなりが 少し響いて 空に雲がさして曇り 雨でも降らないか… 君を留めよう. I wonder if thunder echoes weak, cloud interferes with the sky and rain or something falls. (Then,) I'll keep you here.


4

Yes, これ refers to かの筆にも言語にも言ひ尽し難き情趣の限なき振動のうちに幽かなる心霊の欷歔をたづね、縹渺たる音楽の愉楽に憧がれて自己観想の悲哀に誇る. Note that かの…誇る does not modify これ, but かの…誇る and これ are in apposition. What you got incorrectly is …に非ずや. や signifies a question, including a rhetorical question, which is the case here. So …に非ずや literally means …ではないか but it actually means …である.


3

To complement Avery's answer, one thing that may be worth investigating is that the Nihon Shoki has a particular phonetic orthography for Japanese (so-called Man’yōgana or ateji, which are directly based on Chinese and Korean phonetic use of kanji). Whereas the Kojiki and Man’yōshū phonograms are based on Early Middle Chinese (also the source of Japanese go-...


3

That's a phrase anyone younger than Sherlock Holmes never uses. It's an example of 候文{そうろうぶん}, which had been official writing style until Edo period but completely died out around WWII. Both the wording and orthography are as old as hills (literally). Despite its look, not much particles are omitted because most of them are embedded in the form of kanji in ...


2

From what I could google, this may be a reference to a episode called あははの辻, included in 大鏡【おおかがみ】 written in the 11th century (full text here). http://blog.goo.ne.jp/kyoto-ee/e/8f78ef49a315a26872575bb651f66113 あははの辻で百鬼夜行に その師輔が、百鬼夜行に遭遇した話は、「栄花物語」より少し後にできた歴史物語「大鏡」に記述があります。 それは、師輔が二条大路のあははの辻(今の二条大宮・神泉苑のあたり)で突如牛車を止めさせて丁重に平伏して、尊勝阿羅尼を唱えるという奇妙な行動をする。 ...


2

Technically ぬ is preferred when modifying a nominal (attributive/連体形) and ず elsewhere (fundamentally predicative/終止形). Nowadays under the merger of these two forms in regular verbs and adjectives, using ぬ to end a sentence seems to have become acceptable as well, but you still don't use ず with nouns or ぬ with adverbial conjunctions (*ぬに/*ぬして), I suppose.


2

Yes, they're the 未然形 of す, followed by the 連体形 of the so-called 完了の「り」 in 文語. (It has nothing to do with the causative auxiliary verb せる used today.) In modern Japanese 口語, 専売特許に違背せる物品 ≒ 専売特許に違反した物品 和英字書を編集せるは… ≒ 和英辞書を編集したのは… Also see this chiebukuro Q&A.


2

(もっと詳しい人もいると思うので、この回答は参考程度にお願いします…) Short Answer: It can be interpreted in both ways. Long Answer: 「[noun] + を + 如何せん」 is a common pattern which means 「[noun]をどうしよう」 in modern Japanese, or "What can be done with [noun]?" in English. Usually it implies nothing can be done, or どうしようもない. Of course, を here is an object marker. In old Japanese, nominalizer こと ...


2

I offer my translation, made thanks to the community. Note: the names mentioned by the poet Nagai -- Dangiku, Ochi, Ichiyo, Koyo, Ryokuu, Encho, Shicho, Ryuson and Ogai Gyoshi -- were all contemporary poets, performers and figures of the Meiji period. For some of them, Nagai describes their falling into oblivion punningly, in a manner befitting their names....


2

生きる → 未然形 → 生き + む(=ん) where む is a classical auxiliary verb often expressing volition or speculation. Here it isn't so different than simply saying 生きるために働く. 生きんが為に働く Assuming a generic subject: We work that we may live. We work so that we might live. We work so as to live.


2

猿は人間に毛が三筋足りぬ、is also said 毛が三本足りぬ. I think 三本足りぬ is more popular than 三筋足りぬ as a saying today.  Both '三筋' and '三本' mean three pieces (or threads) of hair. It means monkeys resemble men, but they have three pieces short of hair as compared with men, meaning monkeys are inferior to men. It is an interesting concept and simile that not the size of brain or ...


1

I think what you are talking about is old or antiquated forms of Japanese expression, either written or spoken in or before Meiji era. It’s an issue of antiquity vs recency, i.e, 古語 vs 現代語, not the difference of "style" between 文語体 (literaly style) and 口語体 (spoken style). The samples of words you quoted can be rephrased in various ways in old, now ...



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