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11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


7

足れり is basically the Old/Middle Japanese version of what in Modern Japanese would be 足りている. It consists of 足り (the ren'youkei of 足る) plus あり (modern ある). (It's not 足りあり because of Old Japanese's vowel cluster mergers: /ia/ > /e/.) Modern Japanese 足りている has exactly the same structure as the Middle Japanese version, just with a different conjunction form (-て ...


6

Conventions: I will use 漢字 to represent Chinese words, and かな or [振り仮名]{ふりがな} to represent Japanese words. なす/なる and “to make” 為 is related to (and might have been the same as) 偽, “to forge”. Both なす and なる happens to translate to “to make” in Chinese. When you make “an object” you produce it. Sometimes the active and passive distinction in Chinese is not ...


6

They are conjugational endings from (sh)i-Adjectives: We can derive verbs from adjectives by adding あり: 赤し -> 赤く+あり -> 赤かり And conjugate them further: 赤かれ+ば 赤けれ+ど(も) 赤からず (negation) ... This conjugational suffix got reanalyzed as a word on its own, yielding けれども, which was shortened to けれど, けども, and けど. Even けれ by itself was used in the meaning ...


5

(I'm not a native speaker, nor am I a linguist.) It seems to me that, both ぬ and ざる are used, but there is a difference. They are used for different writing styles. ぬ is used in 和文 while ざる is used in 漢文, as well as constructions borrowed from 漢文. I think that's why ざる appears much more frequently in that passage. And also, ざる is used to conjugate ず ...


5

You can read (or sing) them as: ■■■■■■□□ [を]{お}しとおも[ふ]{う}~- (like ■■■■■□□□ おしとおもー)* ■■■■■■■□ こころ[は]{わ} いとに~ ■■■■■□□□ よられな[む]{ん}~-- ■■■■■■■□ ちるはな ごとに~ □■■■■■■■ -ぬきて とどめ[む]{ん} ■■■■■□□□ さみだれに~-- ■■■■■■■■ ものおも[ひ]{い} [を]{お}れば ■■■■■□□□ ほととぎす~-- ■■■■■■■□ よふかく なきて~ □■■■■■■■ -いづち ゆくら[む]{ん} ■■■■■□□□ ゆ[ふ]{う}ぐれ[は]{わ}~-- □■■■■■■■ ...


5

I suspect this might be an example of poetic license or even contraction. Note that all of the 思ふ instances above follow on another mora from the お行, leaving open the possibility that をしと思{おも}ふ, for example, was actually read as をしともふ, thus producing the expected mora count. I note too that 思う has a pitch pattern of おもう{LHL}, making the お effectively ...


5

In classical Japanese, the 終助詞 「か」 and 「かな」 are always preceded by the 連体形. E.g., 限りなく遠くも来にけるかな。 (Side note: The classical meaning of 「かな」 is slightly different from the modern one. It is more like 「だなあ」.) So, parsing those lyrics: [[[[[[開いたばかりの花]が散る]の]を見ていた]木立]の遣る瀬無き]かな。 That final の is actually a GA-NO converted が, which is allowed because the ...


4

For that, you might have to ask on a Chinese etymology site -- both meanings, "to do" and "because of", can apparently be ascribed to the underlying Chinese term 為: with the reading wéi for "to do", and the reading wèi for "because of". See the entries on MDBG and Mandarin Tools. In most cases of Chinese characters used in Japanese, the various kun'yomi ...


4

To add to the previous answer, there is no clear-cut distinction between 'regular' and 'irregular'; also, irregularities can often be explained and may hint at an old form or conjugational system. Eg strong verbs in English and German (ablaut conjugation), be-was-is-am (merger of different verbs). As for ある, while *あらない is not used in modern Japanese, ...


4

Adjective Endings い and き All the modern い adjectives used to have the following endings (more at the JA Wikipedia article, for those who can read Japanese): 未然形{みぜんけい} (imperfective): く 連用形{れんようけい} (adverbial): く 終止形{しゅうしけい} (terminal): し 連体形{れんようけい} (adnominal): き 已然形{いぜんけい} (perfective): けれ 命令形{めいれいけい} (imperative): - The 未然形 and 連用形 are the same in ...


3

According to a dictionary, この語の成立については未詳。一説に「ぬあった」の転かともいう source


3

I have come to the following conclusion: The あり form of 形容詞 arose to support 助動詞. The non-あり form is only used with 名詞 (via the 連体形), 動詞・形容詞 (via the 連用形), and 接続助詞. To make sure that this explanation is not circular, 助動詞 and 接続助詞 need to be differentiated using some other property — thankfully, 接続助詞 cannot be predicative while 助動詞 can. Some examples... ...


3

The 未然形 isn't just し, there are せ (eg せん, せず, negation) and さ (eg させる, される). Actually if you look at 文語 the 未然形 was actually せ (and the 命令形 just せよ). Finally, if you consider that the 終止形 is す and that you can't form the potential (it is できる instead) while you can for the modern verbs coming from kami-nidan verbs... Probably too brief, but I hope it will ...


3

Yes, it does. In Classical Japanese, たり was an auxiliary verb but in Modern Japanese, it is a particle. The meaning and usage changed somewhat over time in that presently, it is used only in colloquial speech. Regarding your example phrase われ食べたり, I need to mention the fact that 食べる is a modern verb; therefore, you should not combine it with the ...


3

あらず、is often used in 熟語、or old sayings (like 無きにしもあらず) probably made at least around 50 - 100 years ago.. but I don't know exactly when. Nobody would say あらない・あらず in spoken or written language today. Although people can fully understand it, it's something you only read or hear people citing those old saying. It is not used in day-to-day life. So, ...


3

It is from 'classical' grammar, or rather Early Middle Japanese. -しis the 連体形 (form used to modify nouns) of the past tense marker -き. It is used to describe events the speaker knows has happened; in contrast to -けり, which is used for events the speaker has only heard about but not experienced himself. (There are a few other past tense or perfect aspect ...


3

I edited the answer to make it clearer. I think む itself does not seem to have this functions (反語). But it is often used in rhetoric questions, which may make it sound like 反語. Such sentences often contain か or や. If you check the dictionary, you will find か and や is said to have this function too. One explanation is that it's misleading to say む has the ...


3

Like the site that helix pointed out, dummy text generators will just pick some works and generate text from that. There's not one classic text that almost every designer uses. The work that this dummy text generator uses by default is "私の個人主義" ("My Individualism") by 夏目漱石 (Soseki Natsume)


2

Regarding why you find different lyrics in different places - this is pretty much true for most folk songs in most languages, either due to regional variants or improvisation. For example, famous songs such as "Drunken Sailor" often have various additional/optional verses. In this specific case, the Japanese wikipedia article on 鰊場作業唄 describes the format ...


2

The use of the 未然形 is quite limited. As 形容詞 don't conjugate like verbs, it's hard to say they have the 未然形. But as far as I know, there are several theories claiming 形容詞 do have 未然形: く is the 未然形. ~くば resembles 動詞未然形+ば, which is the conditional from. く is the 未然形. ~くない resembles 動詞未然形+ない, which is the negative form. け is the 未然形. ~けく resembles 動詞未然形+く, ...


1

There are two conjugation patterns for 形容詞, as shown in the Japanese Wikipedia article here. The second カリ活用 pattern has more distinct forms. The 未然形 with negative here would be ~からず, or with the presumptive, ~かろう. I'm less familiar with these forms, but the 命令形 persists even in modern Japanese in phrases like 遅かれ早かれ "sooner or later". Past there, whether ...


1

I view ざる as old Japanese(from before the Yedo era) but ぬ can be used in today's Japanese as well as in the old. In old Japanese, ざる is interchangeable with ぬ, both have the same level of colloquiality. In today's Japanese, I feel ない more common than ぬ. はなれざる故か/はなれぬ故か oldest - はなれぬためか a little old - はなれないためだろうか nowadays For き and かる, き indicates past tense ...



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