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21

Just want to add to @永劫回帰's answer, which is a good one explaining the origin of the verb form 「あり」. Prose/Composition Grammar vs. Other Sets of Grammar: While a sentence like 「[保育園]{ほいくえん}がある。」 or 「保育園があります。」 is just perfect if used in prose or compositions. Those contain not a single sign of wordiness or unnaturalness in them. After all, each sentence ...


15

It's a famous book called ぎやどぺかどる, a translation of Guía de Pecadores (or "The Sinner's Guide") by Jesuit mission in Japan. It reads: きやとへかとる 巻の二 (voicing marks unused) Guia do Pecador - Book 2 (title in Medieval Portuguese) What makes it hard to read is hentaigana, now obsolete historic alternate kana, used in the line as: きや登遍可と類 (hentaigana ...


15

The old 終止形 of ある was あり. That means that you could end sentences with あり. Nowadays, あり is to be considered as the antonym of なし. 保育園あり -- There is a nursery 保育園なし -- There is no nursery


12

In classical Japanese, 死ぬ is an irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). Its principal parts are as follows: Irrealis (未然形): 死な〜 Continuative (連用形): 死に〜 Predicative (終止形): 死ぬ Attributive (連体形): 死ぬる Realis (已然形): 死ぬれ〜 Imperative (命令形): 死ね The difference between the predicative and attributive forms is roughly analogous to the difference between 〜だ and 〜な for the ...


12

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


10

As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


9

Please note that the nature of writing using Chinese script often makes it impossible to know how the word was originally pronounced. Generally the only real way of knowing is by having glosses written in kana. In Old Japanese, neither hiragana nor katakana were yet invented, though man'yoogana does indicate the pronunciation. That said, I can only find ...


9

“あり” is a 終止形 of “ある,” the same as “なし” and “ない” as mentioned by 永劫回帰. It can be compared with an English pair word, “Yes (we have) and No (we don’t have)”. The 漢語 version of “あり・なし” are “有・無”, both of which are commonly used. Here are some examples: 雀斑【そばかす】あり – have freckles. 欠点【けってん】あり(の商品) – (a product) with a flaw 曰【いわく】あり – have something with a ...


8

Interesting poem. Let me add a few quick comments. 青かりたり根: As is, 青かりたり is 終止形, so the sentence comes to a complete stop there; the next sentence begins with 根. More likely you want the attributive (連体形) 青かりたる. 青かりたり根: Rather than たり, you may want to consider き. It is a recollational past, so the poet would be speaking from memory. In attributive, this ...


8

I don't think it did. I haven't encountered it with that meaning, I can't find that meaning in a dictionary, and there was already the word "sukisha" or "sukimono" (spelt various ways) with that meaning. All that is just negative evidence, but there is additional evidence re what "好き" means in this context if you look at the full version of the proverb. ...


8

Actually 邪 has a long history of being used for its sound alone, going back at least to the Warring States Shakespeare, Zhuangzi: 天之蒼蒼、其正色邪。其遠而無所至極邪。 The sky looks very blue. Is that its real color, or is it because it is so far away and has no end? [tr. Burton Watson] Here the character 邪 is twice used simply to represent the sound of asking a ...


8

Neither is common. In fact, 戦いませば and 戦いますれば are almost never used in modern Japanese. You have to use 戦いましたら. I sometimes hear stereotyped samurai in samurai dramas say 戦いますれば. It's indeed "if (someone) fights" said in a polite way. It's "stereotyped samurai-ish speech", but I don't know whether old people actually talked like this. People never use it ...


7

Using ハ for particle "wa" was a part of their proper style to write official documents or letters at that time. The writing style of 日米和親条約 in your image is [候文]{そうろう・ぶん}, which was a formal writing style during the Edo period. If you would read other 候文 documents or letters written in the Edo period, you would notice that ハ is almost always used for ...


7

The ぬ is a classical form of ない. While it's not often used you will probably still encounter it in some situations (proverbs are a great example). In this situtation 詰まぬ=詰まない meaning "not being mated" so a translation for the proverb may be: With 3 knights, there's always a mate (no such thing as being unmatable?)


7

Conventions: I will use 漢字 to represent Chinese words, and かな or [振り仮名]{ふりがな} to represent Japanese words. なす/なる and “to make” 為 is related to (and might have been the same as) 偽, “to forge”. Both なす and なる happens to translate to “to make” in Chinese. When you make “an object” you produce it. Sometimes the active and passive distinction in Chinese is not ...


7

足れり is basically the Old/Middle Japanese version of what in Modern Japanese would be 足りている. It consists of 足り (the ren'youkei of 足る) plus あり (modern ある). (It's not 足りあり because of Old Japanese's vowel cluster mergers: /ia/ > /e/.) Modern Japanese 足りている has exactly the same structure as the Middle Japanese version, just with a different conjunction form (-て ...


7

It's direct past き + question か (see the 係助詞 one). The particle か causes 係【かか】り結【むす】び phenomenon, which makes the sentence verb end in 連体形 no matter where か attaches to in the sentence. In the link about き above you can see its 連体形 is し.


7

In late middle Japanese, the actual class of い-adjectives was in fact subdivided into 2 classes, namely ク-adjectives and シク-adjectives. There is remnant of those adjectives even now, though there are mainly to be found in novels or songs in order to add a touch of old. Here, we have 懐かしき, it is the old 連体形 (the base you should use to modify a noun or clause)...


6

As you pointed out, there is no single correct pronunciation of Classical Japanese. It would be more accurate to teach different pronunciations used in different periods, but it would be probably too complicated to teach at schools. The pronunciation of Classical Japanese taught at high schools is the newest one used in Meiji period and later. (I do not ...


6

They are conjugational endings from (sh)i-Adjectives: We can derive verbs from adjectives by adding あり: 赤し -> 赤く+あり -> 赤かり And conjugate them further: 赤かれ+ば 赤けれ+ど(も) 赤からず (negation) ... This conjugational suffix got reanalyzed as a word on its own, yielding けれども, which was shortened to けれど, けども, and けど. Even けれ by itself was used in the meaning ...


6

"Does anyone know what to call the outdated, high form of language which will say for example "ならぬ" rather than "ならない" or more accurately "だめだ"?" We call it 「[文語体]{ぶんごたい}」 or 「文語[調]{ちょう}」("Literal style") as opposed to 「[口語体]{こうごたい}」 or 「口語調」 ("Colloquial style"). "Specifically, I would like to know if there is a name for the dialect used by Kuchiki ...


6

I don't know if @l'électeur's comments were rhetorical or otherwise, but I only find the poem as 若葉 (not 落葉) and written by 蕪村 (not 芭蕉). Here's a more reliable reference from 青空文庫 蕪村には直ちに若葉を詠じたるもの十余句あり。皆若葉の趣味を発揮せり。例、 [...] をちこちに滝の音聞く若葉かな [...] It might not be relevant any longer, but the historical spelling for the お in おちる was just お, and not ...


6

This article seems to show what the original poem is like. われにな問ひそ今の世と The original text goes like this. The な V そ sandwich (V takes 連用形 except for す and 来 become 未然形, せ and こ) is a common Classical pattern for negative imperative "please don't", which is given a detailed explanation in Japanese dictionary. われは明治の兒ならずや negative + 係助詞 や (no ...


6

幾里 means “how many lis.” “Li” is a unit of distance, and 1里 is equal to 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) . 幾 means “how many, how much” as you ask an antique shop owner “これ幾らですか?-How much price is this?” It has nothing to do with the name of town and village. Thus 我れ幾里の路を共に往かむ means “How many miles should I tread (go) with you ahead the road?” Apparently this is an ...


5

The document follows consistent rules, if you look at it more closely. Firstly, the document itself is actually highly cursive, both in its kanji and hiragana. After this time and up until 1945, it became standard for treaties and formal documents to be written exclusively in kanji and katakana. The fact that this uses hiragana is a result of its cursive ...


5

To add to the previous answer, there is no clear-cut distinction between 'regular' and 'irregular'; also, irregularities can often be explained and may hint at an old form or conjugational system. Eg strong verbs in English and German (ablaut conjugation), be-was-is-am (merger of different verbs). As for ある, while *あらない is not used in modern Japanese, ...



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