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11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


10

In classical Japanese, 死ぬ is an irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). Its principal parts are as follows: Irrealis (未然形): 死な〜 Continuative (連用形): 死に〜 Predicative (終止形): 死ぬ Attributive (連体形): 死ぬる Realis (已然形): 死ぬれ〜 Imperative (命令形): 死ね The difference between the predicative and attributive forms is roughly analogous to the difference between 〜だ and 〜な for the ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


8

As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


8

Interesting poem. Let me add a few quick comments. 青かりたり根: As is, 青かりたり is 終止形, so the sentence comes to a complete stop there; the next sentence begins with 根. More likely you want the attributive (連体形) 青かりたる. 青かりたり根: Rather than たり, you may want to consider き. It is a recollational past, so the poet would be speaking from memory. In attributive, this ...


8

I don't think it did. I haven't encountered it with that meaning, I can't find that meaning in a dictionary, and there was already the word "sukisha" or "sukimono" (spelt various ways) with that meaning. All that is just negative evidence, but there is additional evidence re what "好き" means in this context if you look at the full version of the proverb. ...


7

Mora with a glide: I guess, if it is ever used, the mark will express the whole mora rather than just the glide because two consecutive glides are not permitted in Japanese phonology. Long vowel: For katakana, there are specialized symbols ー and |, so you cannot use it. For hiragana, you can you it. あゝ、今日も終わりか。 Nasal coda: Japanese does not allow ...


7

足れり is basically the Old/Middle Japanese version of what in Modern Japanese would be 足りている. It consists of 足り (the ren'youkei of 足る) plus あり (modern ある). (It's not 足りあり because of Old Japanese's vowel cluster mergers: /ia/ > /e/.) Modern Japanese 足りている has exactly the same structure as the Middle Japanese version, just with a different conjunction form (-て ...


7

The ぬ is a classical form of ない. While it's not often used you will probably still encounter it in some situations (proverbs are a great example). In this situtation 詰まぬ=詰まない meaning "not being mated" so a translation for the proverb may be: With 3 knights, there's always a mate (no such thing as being unmatable?)


6

They are conjugational endings from (sh)i-Adjectives: We can derive verbs from adjectives by adding あり: 赤し -> 赤く+あり -> 赤かり And conjugate them further: 赤かれ+ば 赤けれ+ど(も) 赤からず (negation) ... This conjugational suffix got reanalyzed as a word on its own, yielding けれども, which was shortened to けれど, けども, and けど. Even けれ by itself was used in the meaning ...


6

As you pointed out, there is no single correct pronunciation of Classical Japanese. It would be more accurate to teach different pronunciations used in different periods, but it would be probably too complicated to teach at schools. The pronunciation of Classical Japanese taught at high schools is the newest one used in Meiji period and later. (I do not ...


6

Conventions: I will use 漢字 to represent Chinese words, and かな or [振り仮名]{ふりがな} to represent Japanese words. なす/なる and “to make” 為 is related to (and might have been the same as) 偽, “to forge”. Both なす and なる happens to translate to “to make” in Chinese. When you make “an object” you produce it. Sometimes the active and passive distinction in Chinese is not ...


5

(I'm not a native speaker, nor am I a linguist.) It seems to me that, both ぬ and ざる are used, but there is a difference. They are used for different writing styles. ぬ is used in 和文 while ざる is used in 漢文, as well as constructions borrowed from 漢文. I think that's why ざる appears much more frequently in that passage. And also, ざる is used to conjugate ず ...


5

In classical Japanese, the 終助詞 「か」 and 「かな」 are always preceded by the 連体形. E.g., 限りなく遠くも来にけるかな。 (Side note: The classical meaning of 「かな」 is slightly different from the modern one. It is more like 「だなあ」.) So, parsing those lyrics: [[[[[[開いたばかりの花]が散る]の]を見ていた]木立]の遣る瀬無き]かな。 That final の is actually a GA-NO converted が, which is allowed because the ...


5

I suspect this might be an example of poetic license or even contraction. Note that all of the 思ふ instances above follow on another mora from the お行, leaving open the possibility that をしと思{おも}ふ, for example, was actually read as をしともふ, thus producing the expected mora count. I note too that 思う has a pitch pattern of おもう{LHL}, making the お effectively ...


5

You can read (or sing) them as: ■■■■■■□□ [を]{お}しとおも[ふ]{う}~- (like ■■■■■□□□ おしとおもー)* ■■■■■■■□ こころ[は]{わ} いとに~ ■■■■■□□□ よられな[む]{ん}~-- ■■■■■■■□ ちるはな ごとに~ □■■■■■■■ -ぬきて とどめ[む]{ん} ■■■■■□□□ さみだれに~-- ■■■■■■■■ ものおも[ひ]{い} [を]{お}れば ■■■■■□□□ ほととぎす~-- ■■■■■■■□ よふかく なきて~ □■■■■■■■ -いづち ゆくら[む]{ん} ■■■■■□□□ ゆ[ふ]{う}ぐれ[は]{わ}~-- □■■■■■■■ ...


4

Kohsuke Kawaguchi already answered your question, but I want to add a little bit of detail about ゆかん. You wrote the following: nor have I seen an an ending unless it was going to be あない. This stem of the verb is called the 未然形{みぜんけい} in traditional Japanese grammar, and several things can attach to it besides the auxiliary ない. Historically, there was ...


4

漢文 (Classical Chinese) is taught in 高校 (at least at most private schools). Thus most Japanese should be vaguely familiar with the ideas of 漢文 (reading characters backwards, inserting particles, etc.), but this is not enough to be able to read 漢文 properly. Still, just by looking at the characters, the Japanese will be able to extract some meaning, of course.


4

This is one of the neat things about Japanese, and actually can shed some light on [音]{おん}[読]{よ}み・[訓]{くん}[読]{よ}み. One can think about the whole Japanese writing system as just using the 漢字 that have similar meaning for the Japanese word, and "reading" it as Chinese or Japanese. It started out by being just literal Chinese ([漢文]{かんぶん}). Then, instead of ...


4

Meiji-yaku is influenced from chinese bible(聖經). http://xybk.fuyin.tv/bible/NCV/b5/ 創造天地萬物 1 起初, 神創造天地。 2 地是空虛混沌;深淵上一片黑暗; 神的靈運行在水面上。 3  神說:“要有光!”就有了光。 4  神看光是好的,他就把光暗分開了。 Many kanji notations are same as that of chinese version, but the reading are that of japanese. here becomes the deviations between the ...


4

To add to the previous answer, there is no clear-cut distinction between 'regular' and 'irregular'; also, irregularities can often be explained and may hint at an old form or conjugational system. Eg strong verbs in English and German (ablaut conjugation), be-was-is-am (merger of different verbs). As for ある, while *あらない is not used in modern Japanese, ...


4

For that, you might have to ask on a Chinese etymology site -- both meanings, "to do" and "because of", can apparently be ascribed to the underlying Chinese term 為: with the reading wéi for "to do", and the reading wèi for "because of". See the entries on MDBG and Mandarin Tools. In most cases of Chinese characters used in Japanese, the various kun'yomi ...


4

Adjective Endings い and き All the modern い adjectives used to have the following endings (more at the JA Wikipedia article, for those who can read Japanese): 未然形{みぜんけい} (imperfective): く 連用形{れんようけい} (adverbial): く 終止形{しゅうしけい} (terminal): し 連体形{れんようけい} (adnominal): き 已然形{いぜんけい} (perfective): けれ 命令形{めいれいけい} (imperative): - The 未然形 and 連用形 are the same in ...


3

古典文法は得意ではないですが、「なかりき」又は「なかりけり」だと思います。 自分が体験したことを話すときは「なかりき」、人に聞いたことを話すときは「なかりけり」だそうです。


3

Yes, it does. In Classical Japanese, たり was an auxiliary verb but in Modern Japanese, it is a particle. The meaning and usage changed somewhat over time in that presently, it is used only in colloquial speech. Regarding your example phrase われ食べたり, I need to mention the fact that 食べる is a modern verb; therefore, you should not combine it with the ...


3

I edited the answer to make it clearer. I think む itself does not seem to have this functions (反語). But it is often used in rhetoric questions, which may make it sound like 反語. Such sentences often contain か or や. If you check the dictionary, you will find か and や is said to have this function too. One explanation is that it's misleading to say む has the ...


3

Like the site that helix pointed out, dummy text generators will just pick some works and generate text from that. There's not one classic text that almost every designer uses. The work that this dummy text generator uses by default is "私の個人主義" ("My Individualism") by 夏目漱石 (Soseki Natsume)


3

いざ is an older expression that means "let us", and や is adding an emphasis. As a Japanese I don't particularly feel odd that 行く is written as ゆく, especially because 行く has a risk of being read as いく. ~かん is another older expression that means "about to [do]". I think the reason you feel odd about this whole sentence is that the whole thing uses ...


3

あらず、is often used in 熟語、or old sayings (like 無きにしもあらず) probably made at least around 50 - 100 years ago.. but I don't know exactly when. Nobody would say あらない・あらず in spoken or written language today. Although people can fully understand it, it's something you only read or hear people citing those old saying. It is not used in day-to-day life. So, ...


3

It is from 'classical' grammar, or rather Early Middle Japanese. -しis the 連体形 (form used to modify nouns) of the past tense marker -き. It is used to describe events the speaker knows has happened; in contrast to -けり, which is used for events the speaker has only heard about but not experienced himself. (There are a few other past tense or perfect aspect ...



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