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11

This looks like modern "浮かべる" but it is actually classical "浮かぶ" (四段, "to float") plus what is traditionally taught as the "り" auxiliary verb (助動詞). Etymologically, of course, it is really just "ari" attached to the ren'yokei 連用形/infinitive: /ukabi/ + /ari/ = /ukab(y)eri/, /ukab(y)eru/ adnominally (as in this case). Frellesvig calls this the "morphological ...


10

In classical Japanese, 死ぬ is an irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). Its principal parts are as follows: Irrealis (未然形): 死な〜 Continuative (連用形): 死に〜 Predicative (終止形): 死ぬ Attributive (連体形): 死ぬる Realis (已然形): 死ぬれ〜 Imperative (命令形): 死ね The difference between the predicative and attributive forms is roughly analogous to the difference between 〜だ and 〜な for the ...


9

As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


9

There is no clear-cut etymological explanation, but some think there is a connection. In A History of the Japanese Language (2010), Frellesvig says: The suffixes which attach to the infinitive [i.e. renyokei] are [...] transparently agglutinating and their use as suffixes seems to be younger [than suffixes attaching to the mizenkei, which Frellesvig ...


8

Interesting poem. Let me add a few quick comments. 青かりたり根: As is, 青かりたり is 終止形, so the sentence comes to a complete stop there; the next sentence begins with 根. More likely you want the attributive (連体形) 青かりたる. 青かりたり根: Rather than たり, you may want to consider き. It is a recollational past, so the poet would be speaking from memory. In attributive, this ...


8

I don't think it did. I haven't encountered it with that meaning, I can't find that meaning in a dictionary, and there was already the word "sukisha" or "sukimono" (spelt various ways) with that meaning. All that is just negative evidence, but there is additional evidence re what "好き" means in this context if you look at the full version of the proverb. ...


8

Please note that the nature of writing using Chinese script often makes it impossible to know how the word was originally pronounced. Generally the only real way of knowing is by having glosses written in kana. In Old Japanese, neither hiragana nor katakana were yet invented, though man'yoogana does indicate the pronunciation. That said, I can only find ...


7

The ぬ is a classical form of ない. While it's not often used you will probably still encounter it in some situations (proverbs are a great example). In this situtation 詰まぬ=詰まない meaning "not being mated" so a translation for the proverb may be: With 3 knights, there's always a mate (no such thing as being unmatable?)


7

足れり is basically the Old/Middle Japanese version of what in Modern Japanese would be 足りている. It consists of 足り (the ren'youkei of 足る) plus あり (modern ある). (It's not 足りあり because of Old Japanese's vowel cluster mergers: /ia/ > /e/.) Modern Japanese 足りている has exactly the same structure as the Middle Japanese version, just with a different conjunction form (-て ...


6

They are conjugational endings from (sh)i-Adjectives: We can derive verbs from adjectives by adding あり: 赤し -> 赤く+あり -> 赤かり And conjugate them further: 赤かれ+ば 赤けれ+ど(も) 赤からず (negation) ... This conjugational suffix got reanalyzed as a word on its own, yielding けれども, which was shortened to けれど, けども, and けど. Even けれ by itself was used in the meaning ...


6

As you pointed out, there is no single correct pronunciation of Classical Japanese. It would be more accurate to teach different pronunciations used in different periods, but it would be probably too complicated to teach at schools. The pronunciation of Classical Japanese taught at high schools is the newest one used in Meiji period and later. (I do not ...


6

Conventions: I will use 漢字 to represent Chinese words, and かな or [振り仮名]{ふりがな} to represent Japanese words. なす/なる and “to make” 為 is related to (and might have been the same as) 偽, “to forge”. Both なす and なる happens to translate to “to make” in Chinese. When you make “an object” you produce it. Sometimes the active and passive distinction in Chinese is not ...


6

I don't know if @l'électeur's comments were rhetorical or otherwise, but I only find the poem as 若葉 (not 落葉) and written by 蕪村 (not 芭蕉). Here's a more reliable reference from 青空文庫 蕪村には直ちに若葉を詠じたるもの十余句あり。皆若葉の趣味を発揮せり。例、 [...] をちこちに滝の音聞く若葉かな [...] It might not be relevant any longer, but the historical spelling for the お in おちる was just お, and not ...


5

(I'm not a native speaker, nor am I a linguist.) It seems to me that, both ぬ and ざる are used, but there is a difference. They are used for different writing styles. ぬ is used in 和文 while ざる is used in 漢文, as well as constructions borrowed from 漢文. I think that's why ざる appears much more frequently in that passage. And also, ざる is used to conjugate ず ...


5

To add to the previous answer, there is no clear-cut distinction between 'regular' and 'irregular'; also, irregularities can often be explained and may hint at an old form or conjugational system. Eg strong verbs in English and German (ablaut conjugation), be-was-is-am (merger of different verbs). As for ある, while *あらない is not used in modern Japanese, ...


5

In classical Japanese, the 終助詞 「か」 and 「かな」 are always preceded by the 連体形. E.g., 限りなく遠くも来にけるかな。 (Side note: The classical meaning of 「かな」 is slightly different from the modern one. It is more like 「だなあ」.) So, parsing those lyrics: [[[[[[開いたばかりの花]が散る]の]を見ていた]木立]の遣る瀬無き]かな。 That final の is actually a GA-NO converted が, which is allowed because the ...


5

Actually 邪 has a long history of being used for its sound alone, going back at least to the Warring States Shakespeare, Zhuangzi: 天之蒼蒼、其正色邪。其遠而無所至極邪。 The sky looks very blue. Is that its real color, or is it because it is so far away and has no end? [tr. Burton Watson] Here the character 邪 is twice used simply to represent the sound of asking a ...


5

This article seems to show what the original poem is like. われにな問ひそ今の世と The original text goes like this. The な V そ sandwich (V takes 連用形 except for す and 来 become 未然形, せ and こ) is a common Classical pattern for negative imperative "please don't", which is given a detailed explanation in Japanese dictionary. われは明治の兒ならずや negative + や (no particular ...


4

As sawa and Gradius say, this is part of the kundoku tradition, but I feel that this particular example is more usefully identified as sōrō bun, which is a Medieval-through-Modern phenomenon and has a couple of distinguishing characteristics, most notably: Use of sōrō 候 at the end of sentences (hence the name of the style) Use of Japanese rather than ...


4

漢文 (Classical Chinese) is taught in 高校 (at least at most private schools). Thus most Japanese should be vaguely familiar with the ideas of 漢文 (reading characters backwards, inserting particles, etc.), but this is not enough to be able to read 漢文 properly. Still, just by looking at the characters, the Japanese will be able to extract some meaning, of course.


4

This is one of the neat things about Japanese, and actually can shed some light on [音]{おん}[読]{よ}み・[訓]{くん}[読]{よ}み. One can think about the whole Japanese writing system as just using the 漢字 that have similar meaning for the Japanese word, and "reading" it as Chinese or Japanese. It started out by being just literal Chinese ([漢文]{かんぶん}). Then, instead of ...


4

Meiji-yaku is influenced from chinese bible(聖經). http://xybk.fuyin.tv/bible/NCV/b5/ 創造天地萬物 1 起初, 神創造天地。 2 地是空虛混沌;深淵上一片黑暗; 神的靈運行在水面上。 3  神說:“要有光!”就有了光。 4  神看光是好的,他就把光暗分開了。 Many kanji notations are same as that of chinese version, but the reading are that of japanese. here becomes the deviations between the ...


4

For that, you might have to ask on a Chinese etymology site -- both meanings, "to do" and "because of", can apparently be ascribed to the underlying Chinese term 為: with the reading wéi for "to do", and the reading wèi for "because of". See the entries on MDBG and Mandarin Tools. In most cases of Chinese characters used in Japanese, the various kun'yomi ...


4

I suspect this might be an example of poetic license or even contraction. Note that all of the 思ふ instances above follow on another mora from the お行, leaving open the possibility that をしと思{おも}ふ, for example, was actually read as をしともふ, thus producing the expected mora count. I note too that 思う has a pitch pattern of おもう{LHL}, making the お effectively ...


4

Adjective Endings い and き All the modern い adjectives used to have the following endings (more at the JA Wikipedia article, for those who can read Japanese): 未然形{みぜんけい} (imperfective): く 連用形{れんようけい} (adverbial): く 終止形{しゅうしけい} (terminal): し 連体形{れんようけい} (adnominal): き 已然形{いぜんけい} (perfective): けれ 命令形{めいれいけい} (imperative): - The 未然形 and 連用形 are the same in ...


4

The first phrase is nominal. It is composed of 接頭語(prefix)「御」 and 名詞(noun)「来駕」. The numbers in the right side represent the reading order of 漢字. The second phrase is composed of a verb(動詞)「[成]{な}す」, a subsidiary verb(補助動詞)「[下]{くだ}さる」 and an auxiliary verb(助動詞)「たい」. The reading order of the second phrase is not simple top-to-down. This kind of reading ...


3

古典文法は得意ではないですが、「なかりき」又は「なかりけり」だと思います。 自分が体験したことを話すときは「なかりき」、人に聞いたことを話すときは「なかりけり」だそうです。


3

I edited the answer to make it clearer. I think む itself does not seem to have this functions (反語). But it is often used in rhetoric questions, which may make it sound like 反語. Such sentences often contain か or や. If you check the dictionary, you will find か and や is said to have this function too. One explanation is that it's misleading to say む has the ...



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