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10

In classical Japanese, 死ぬ is an irregular verb (ナ行変格活用動詞). Its principal parts are as follows: Irrealis (未然形): 死な〜 Continuative (連用形): 死に〜 Predicative (終止形): 死ぬ Attributive (連体形): 死ぬる Realis (已然形): 死ぬれ〜 Imperative (命令形): 死ね The difference between the predicative and attributive forms is roughly analogous to the difference between 〜だ and 〜な for the ...


8

As you correctly pointed out, many 一段 verbs have an older 四段 version. Many are formed by combining them with 在る, and 得(う)る, and 為(す)る, whose classical sentence-ending ("dictionary" or 終止形) form is only す. This book, available online, explains it very well. (Unless you are a professional linguists, the book does a good job at making sense of and shedding ...


7

Mora with a glide: I guess, if it is ever used, the mark will express the whole mora rather than just the glide because two consecutive glides are not permitted in Japanese phonology. Long vowel: For katakana, there are specialized symbols ー and |, so you cannot use it. For hiragana, you can you it. あゝ、今日も終わりか。 Nasal coda: Japanese does not allow ...


7

I don't think it did. I haven't encountered it with that meaning, I can't find that meaning in a dictionary, and there was already the word "sukisha" or "sukimono" (spelt various ways) with that meaning. All that is just negative evidence, but there is additional evidence re what "好き" means in this context if you look at the full version of the proverb. ...


7

The ぬ is a classical form of ない. While it's not often used you will probably still encounter it in some situations (proverbs are a great example). In this situtation 詰まぬ=詰まない meaning "not being mated" so a translation for the proverb may be: With 3 knights, there's always a mate (no such thing as being unmatable?)


7

Interesting poem. Let me add a few quick comments. 青かりたり根: As is, 青かりたり is 終止形, so the sentence comes to a complete stop there; the next sentence begins with 根. More likely you want the attributive (連体形) 青かりたる. 青かりたり根: Rather than たり, you may want to consider き. It is a recollational past, so the poet would be speaking from memory. In attributive, this ...


6

As you pointed out, there is no single correct pronunciation of Classical Japanese. It would be more accurate to teach different pronunciations used in different periods, but it would be probably too complicated to teach at schools. The pronunciation of Classical Japanese taught at high schools is the newest one used in Meiji period and later. (I do not ...


6

They are conjugational endings from (sh)i-Adjectives: We can derive verbs from adjectives by adding あり: 赤し -> 赤く+あり -> 赤かり And conjugate them further: 赤かれ+ば 赤けれ+ど(も) 赤からず (negation) ... This conjugational suffix got reanalyzed as a word on its own, yielding けれども, which was shortened to けれど, けども, and けど. Even けれ by itself was used in the meaning ...


5

(I'm not a native speaker, nor am I a linguist.) It seems to me that, both ぬ and ざる are used, but there is a difference. They are used for different writing styles. ぬ is used in 和文 while ざる is used in 漢文, as well as constructions borrowed from 漢文. I think that's why ざる appears much more frequently in that passage. And also, ざる is used to conjugate ず ...


4

Kohsuke Kawaguchi already answered your question, but I want to add a little bit of detail about ゆかん. You wrote the following: nor have I seen an an ending unless it was going to be あない. This stem of the verb is called the 未然形{みぜんけい} in traditional Japanese grammar, and several things can attach to it besides the auxiliary ない. Historically, there was ...


4

漢文 (Classical Chinese) is taught in 高校 (at least at most private schools). Thus most Japanese should be vaguely familiar with the ideas of 漢文 (reading characters backwards, inserting particles, etc.), but this is not enough to be able to read 漢文 properly. Still, just by looking at the characters, the Japanese will be able to extract some meaning, of course.


4

This is one of the neat things about Japanese, and actually can shed some light on [音]{おん}[読]{よ}み・[訓]{くん}[読]{よ}み. One can think about the whole Japanese writing system as just using the 漢字 that have similar meaning for the Japanese word, and "reading" it as Chinese or Japanese. It started out by being just literal Chinese ([漢文]{かんぶん}). Then, instead of ...


4

Meiji-yaku is influenced from chinese bible(聖經). http://xybk.fuyin.tv/bible/NCV/b5/ 創造天地萬物 1 起初, 神創造天地。 2 地是空虛混沌;深淵上一片黑暗; 神的靈運行在水面上。 3  神說:“要有光!”就有了光。 4  神看光是好的,他就把光暗分開了。 Many kanji notations are same as that of chinese version, but the reading are that of japanese. here becomes the deviations between the ...


3

Yes, it does. In Classical Japanese, たり was an auxiliary verb but in Modern Japanese, it is a particle. The meaning and usage changed somewhat over time in that presently, it is used only in colloquial speech. Regarding your example phrase われ食べたり, I need to mention the fact that 食べる is a modern verb; therefore, you should not combine it with the ...


3

I edited the answer to make it clearer. I think む itself does not seem to have this functions (反語). But it is often used in rhetoric questions, which may make it sound like 反語. Such sentences often contain か or や. If you check the dictionary, you will find か and や is said to have this function too. One explanation is that it's misleading to say む has the ...


3

Like the site that helix pointed out, dummy text generators will just pick some works and generate text from that. There's not one classic text that almost every designer uses. The work that this dummy text generator uses by default is "私の個人主義" ("My Individualism") by 夏目漱石 (Soseki Natsume)


3

It is from 'classical' grammar, or rather Early Middle Japanese. -しis the 連体形 (form used to modify nouns) of the past tense marker -き. It is used to describe events the speaker knows has happened; in contrast to -けり, which is used for events the speaker has only heard about but not experienced himself. (There are a few other past tense or perfect aspect ...


3

あらず、is often used in 熟語、or old sayings (like 無きにしもあらず) probably made at least around 50 - 100 years ago.. but I don't know exactly when. Nobody would say あらない・あらず in spoken or written language today. Although people can fully understand it, it's something you only read or hear people citing those old saying. It is not used in day-to-day life. So, ...


3

As sawa and Gradius say, this is part of the kundoku tradition, but I feel that this particular example is more usefully identified as sōrō bun, which is a Medieval-through-Modern phenomenon and has a couple of distinguishing characteristics, most notably: Use of sōrō 候 at the end of sentences (hence the name of the style) Use of Japanese rather than ...


3

いざ is an older expression that means "let us", and や is adding an emphasis. As a Japanese I don't particularly feel odd that 行く is written as ゆく, especially because 行く has a risk of being read as いく. ~かん is another older expression that means "about to [do]". I think the reason you feel odd about this whole sentence is that the whole thing uses ...


3

I have come to the following conclusion: The あり form of 形容詞 arose to support 助動詞. The non-あり form is only used with 名詞 (via the 連体形), 動詞・形容詞 (via the 連用形), and 接続助詞. To make sure that this explanation is not circular, 助動詞 and 接続助詞 need to be differentiated using some other property — thankfully, 接続助詞 cannot be predicative while 助動詞 can. Some examples... ...


3

According to this, the original man'yougana version of this poem has ふ, but this particular makura-kotoba in other poems is written either with ぶ or with spellings that could be read either way. At some point in the past this poem's version ended up changed to match the rest, but whether or not the original was supposed to be ぶ anyway is unclear. As for the ...


2

What about 身につまされる? Here are some examples I found of it. 友人の死を聞いて身につまされた → [痛切に感じた] The news of my friend's death came home to me. [ひどく気の毒に思った] I felt deeply sorry [felt deep sympathy] for my friend's death. その娘の苦労が身につまされる → The girl's sufferings touch me deeply. 彼の話には身につまされて皆泣いた → We all shed tears of sympathy at his story.


2

The same function as it does in modern Japanese: to supplement the missing conjugations. Japanese adjectives have a limited conjugation: 連用形 -ku, 終止形 -si, and 連体形 -ki. So how would you make a negative adjective without a 未然形? Or how would you make a conjection without 已然形 (modern 仮定形)? Easy: since it can already modify a verb (連用形 -ku), just add a the most ...


2

I looked through a recent センター国語 past test (a standard test for college admissions) and there was a 漢文 section. So it appears at least colleges expect this, which suggests it should be somewhat common knowledge. This wikipedia article says 漢文 counts for 25 percent of the 国語 section.


2

Regarding why you find different lyrics in different places - this is pretty much true for most folk songs in most languages, either due to regional variants or improvisation. For example, famous songs such as "Drunken Sailor" often have various additional/optional verses. In this specific case, the Japanese wikipedia article on 鰊場作業唄 describes the format ...


2

The 文語 translation of The Bible was made before WWII when written Japanese was undergoing a huge revolution. 文語 is the written Japanese. Before Meiji, all written Japanese used a type of written Japanese called 文語体. 文語体 developed during 中古日本語, which was developed in Heian. And during Meiji there was a reform which suggested that written Japanese should be ...


2

The 未然形 isn't just し, there are せ (eg せん, せず, negation) and さ (eg させる, される). Actually if you look at 文語 the 未然形 was actually せ (and the 命令形 just せよ). Finally, if you consider that the 終止形 is す and that you can't form the potential (it is できる instead) while you can for the modern verbs coming from kami-nidan verbs... Probably too brief, but I hope it will ...


1

I view ざる as old Japanese(from before the Yedo era) but ぬ can be used in today's Japanese as well as in the old. In old Japanese, ざる is interchangeable with ぬ, both have the same level of colloquiality. In today's Japanese, I feel ない more common than ぬ. はなれざる故か/はなれぬ故か oldest - はなれぬためか a little old - はなれないためだろうか nowadays For き and かる, き indicates past tense ...



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