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6

Since I have no knowledge of the subject, I am quoting from an academic paper: 日本・中国・台湾・香港の基礎漢字1945字字体一覧表の作成に向けて (香港中文大学日本研究学科、Senior Instructor、兒島慶治) According to the author of this paper, the number is 1,165. (See page 4.) Note that there were 1,945 [常用漢字]{じょうようかんじ} when this paper was written. Currently, that number has increased to 2,136. So, the ...


4

To me, が seems to be the thing you're looking for. It is most commonly known as the "subject marking particle", but can also be placed at the end of a clause to create the sense of "although" or "but". For example: 今日はいい天気だが、遊びに行きたくない。 Although the weather is nice today, I don't want to go play. This type of が can also be used in polite sentences: ...


4

Yes, 黒 is the 新字体{しんじたい} (simplified) form of 黑, which took the two dots at the top and turned them into a straight line. The same simplification can be seen in 曾 -> 曽. This was all part of the 1945 simplification scheme in Japanese. 黑 is still used in chinese though, both simplified and traditional, and has the exact same meaning of "black", as you pointed ...


3

This question could probably be answered on different levels, but here is what you might want to know for starters because that is what I, an average Japanese-speaker, know. The key word here is phonetics, not orthography. [大和言葉]{やまとことば} are the words that existed when Japanese was only a spoken language. Sounds were everything we had to express ...


2

It's actually due to a couple of things. For *-p, Japanese actually did originally borrow it as *-pu. Subsequent sound changes have turned Old Japanese *p into /w/ between vowels, and the resulting -(w)u has combined with the vowel before it. (Note that Modern Japanese /p/ is actually a Middle Japanese reintroduction from Chinese; where Old Japanese *p ...


1

If you're familiar with the Japanese spoken language, one approach you can take is to rectify each kanji you read with a familiar word that it appears in. For example, if you see the kanji 手 and you naturally want to pronounce it "zu" instead of "te," recall that you know that same kanji from the word 手紙, in which it is pronounced "te."



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