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13

The character in question was originally composed of 歯 (teeth) and 巳 (child). It represented children's teeth. This later became 齔 and 齓. 齔 is typically preferred over 齓, so I will use it below. It has two primary meanings: 1) in children, the replacement of old teeth with new teeth; 2) children of an age in which they are loosing their old teeth and growing ...


13

When the Chinese writing system was introduced to Japan, the Japanese people tried to incorporate the Chinese characters, or Kanji, to the words that means the closest thing in the Japanese language. For example, the word たべる, which is a word that probably existed before monks from China introduced Kanji to the Japanese people. When Kanji is finally ...


12

In the olden days Japanese scholarly works were written in 漢文, which is basically Classical Chinese. Together with a set of annotation rules (e.g. "read the next two characters backwards", "insert a particle here", etc.) it was possible to translate/transcribe the resulting Chinese text into Japanese. Nowadays, it would still be possible to render Japanese ...


10

湯 does mean hot/boiling water in Classical Chinese (but not in modern varieties like Mandarin or Cantonese or Min where it means "soup"). The Classical Chinese reading is preserved in the saying 赴湯蹈火 "to step through hot water [and] tread on fire".


8

The standard formal opening, equivalent to English "Dear Sir/Madam", is 拝啓. The closing, equivalent to "Sincerely Yours", is 敬具. I don't see why you couldn't put in the Chinese greeting as well, along with a little explanation. The teacher might find it interesting/charming, and there's nothing wrong with a little cross-cultural exchange.


8

With well-educated young adults, it's likely that you can. Japanese junior high and high school students learn kanbun (i.e. ancient Chinese poems and literature) at school in a very unique way with some special marks that compensate for the difference in grammar. Those with ambition of going to top colleges would study the subject very hard, so you might ...


8

Although it's true that there are a very, very large number of kanji compounds imported from Chinese to Japanese, it's not as direct as that statement. There are Chinese words that don't exist in Japanese, and many chinese Kanji have different meanings or pronounciations, as well as occasionally being written slightly differently. These differences are ...


8

Kanjigen lists 齔{シン} (U+9F54) together with 齓{シン} (U+9F53), and as far as I can tell the former is more common, though I'm not sure either are commonly used (I think 乳歯{にゅうし} might be much more common to mean "baby tooth"). It says it can refer to: (シンす) (verb/noun) The losing of teeth which occurs around the age of 7 or 8. Or, the teeth one has prior to ...


7

My dictionary 漢字源 lists as meanings {名} はな。はなぶさ。中央がくぼみ、芯を含んだような形をしたはな。→ 華 {形・名} うるわしい。すぐれている。ひいでた者。「英雄」「英明」。 & 4. [omitted] The literal meaning being related to a flower, the extended meaning being "lovely" or "outstanding" or "someone skillful". The words 英雄 "hero" and 英明 "intelligent" are listed under this extended meaning.


7

Henshall writes on p.130 of A Guide to Remembering Japanese Characters: 艹 is plant 9. 央 is center 429 q.v., here acting phonetically to express bloom and possibly lending an idea of blocked off at the head from its assumed original meaning of person yoked at the neck. 426 originally meant a flower that blossomed but lacked seed, such a flower being ...


6

A nice list can be found in sci.lang.japan FAQ (which is itself worth reading to people learning Japanese).


6

Do you mean words or sentences? For word, they can understand common words exist in both Chinese and Japanese and have the same meaning, of course. But there are still words that exist only in Chinese or Japanese, and words having different (or opposite) meaning in Chinese and Japanese. Like 娘 means daughter in Japanese, but mother in Chinese. For ...


6

According to Wikipedia, [...] また、朝日新聞は中国人名のルビを中国語読みで表記している。(グループ会社のテレビ朝日は日本語読み) [...] 日本漢字音による読みは原則として漢音を用いるが、金日成、済物浦、銭其琛をそれぞれ「きんにっせい」、「さいもっぽ」、「せんきしん」と読むように呉音や慣用音が用いられることも稀にある。また個別の慣用によって、北京をペキン、香港をホンコンと読んだり、台湾の高雄を「たかお」と訓読みしたりする場合がある。 Here is my translation, additions in square brackets: [...] On the other hand, the Asahi ...


5

It may be impossible to do with old texts written in 万葉仮名 (man'yôgana), which is to say that chinese characters where used only for their phonetic value, not their meaning… Without proper boundaries to the question, the answer ranges from "kind of" as user1205935 said, to "not at all".


5

The Chinese calligraphy came to Japan approximately 1,500~2,000 years ago, so I'd argue that that statement goes the other way: Chinese people can read many Japanese words and grasp quickly what they mean. Chinese, on the other hand, uses many, many kanji that are not found in Japanese's ~2,000 常用漢字 joyo-kanji taught in the education system. So, I don't ...


4

漢文 (Classical Chinese) is taught in 高校 (at least at most private schools). Thus most Japanese should be vaguely familiar with the ideas of 漢文 (reading characters backwards, inserting particles, etc.), but this is not enough to be able to read 漢文 properly. Still, just by looking at the characters, the Japanese will be able to extract some meaning, of course.


4

I cannot answer the first question, but deciduous/milk/baby teeth is [乳歯]{にゅうし}. (Just a guess, but the reading かけば sounds like かけ + 歯(with rendaku), so I imagine it to be something like 欠け歯 but I cannot find anything to substantiate this claim.)


4

予 in Japanese is also a simplified version of 豫. 猶予 corresponds to Mandarin 犹豫. http://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E4%BA%88


4

On a per-character basis, generally not. Calligraphic styles are relatively standardized across the Sinosphere. The only real exceptions to this are where distinctly nationalistic elements appear when looking at the broader text as a whole: Simplified Characters, in the case of Chinese Hangul, in the case of Korea Kana and certain Japanese ...


4

This answer won't be very helpful if you're looking for a general rule that is followed. There was a Chinese girl in my Japanese class, and she asked the teacher how she should write and pronounce her name. However, the teacher replied with something that seems plainly obvious now that I know of it. The teacher told her that it's her name so it's her ...


3

In short, no. Even for 漢字 that exist in both languages, not all are semantically equivalent. Consider 勉強. One of its main meaning in Japanese is "study". In Chinese it means "to force/push oneself (reluctantly)". Also consider the grammar. 的 in Chinese is similar to の (genitive case marker). In Japanese, 的 produces an adjective from a noun.


3

I know that 鮪 (まぐろ, tuna) means "蝶鮫" (ちょうざめ, sturgeon), and that 鮭 (さけ, salmon) means 鰒 (ふぐ,fugu) in Chinese. It seems that the mistakes comes from reading the descriptions of the fish without seeing actually what the writer meant. Then, interpretation errors let to putting a fish name on another fish. Source: 日本人の知らない日本語, volume 1.


3

八百長 (やおちょう) is one word, if you extract first two "八百", it will become "はっぴゃく" (meaning - 800) there is no relation between those two. Regarding the word "八百長" timeline, Wikipedia, and Gogen guide, it started to be used in the Meiji Era (1868–1912).


3

Are these simplified Chinese versions of the kanji sometimes used in place of the Japanese version? The answer is yes, if the Chinese simplification coincides with the simplification used in Japan. These simplifications have existed long before the writing reform in the 1960s and so it is only natural that there would be some overlap. These 略字 are ...


3

釋: The English wiktionary may be incorrect or incomplete. I suggest you cross-reference with a kanji dictionary. Here is a screenshot from my electronic dictionary (新漢語林): As you can see, 釋 is marked as a 旧字(体) of 釈. You may also try the glyphwiki: 釋 on glyphwiki. The google android IME tells you this as well when converting しゃく. Luchuan: Here is an ...


2

I assume you're referring to the Baxter-Sagart Middle Chinese transcriptions of the Qieyun rime dictionary. When I search these transcriptions for 洗, I find two readings listed: *sejX, corresponding to modern Mandarin xǐ, Japanese セイ・サイ, and Korean 세 se *senX, corresponding to modern Mandarin xiǎn, Japanese セン, and Korean 선 seon So I think the final ...


2

According to Pulleyblank's Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation (http://books.google.com/books?id=qWGIxP1R4P4C, p336), there's a reconstructed EMC pronunciation of 洗 as *sɛn' (no idea what the apostrophe means, though - glottal stop?). This apparently corresponds to a modern Mandarin pronunciation of xiǎn, which also has a nasal final. There may also be a ...


2

I looked through a recent センター国語 past test (a standard test for college admissions) and there was a 漢文 section. So it appears at least colleges expect this, which suggests it should be somewhat common knowledge. This wikipedia article says 漢文 counts for 25 percent of the 国語 section.


2

After looking at this and using rikaikun (Chrome Extension): Looking it up in Tagaini Jisho gives me the ろく entry, but the top-right radical is written differently, even though one of the listed components is "彑". (A variant of 彑 is 彐 or ⺕). It appears to be a kanji character that's used sparingly in Japanese, probably 人名用漢字 (JinmeiyouKanji) (Kanji ...



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