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9

The form 〜てみます(みる) means to do something and see how it turns out, or see how it goes. So 〜てみましょう means "let's do it and see how is goes", whereas 〜ましょう just means "let's do it". 何かしてみましょう → Let's do something and see what happens/how it turns out 何かしましょう → Let's do something In this case, there's not a huge difference in the meaning (assuming this ...


8

Yes, ~うる (or ~える) can be thought of as a potential form. It's an auxiliary that expresses "can", and it attaches to the continuative form (連用形) of a verb. That's the same form of the verb you use before the polite auxiliary ~ます, so we get forms like these:   ある   →  ありうる   考える  →  考えうる   する   →  しうる In kanji, this verb would be written 得る, but in ...


8

The ん negative ending is a contraction of sorts of classical negative ending ぬ, precursor to modern ない. It's still pretty common. As illustration of this, the Microsoft IME gives 食べん as a valid conversion option after typing in taben, or 飲まん for noman. Note that する with the negative ん is not しん, but instead せん, as again the negative ん is from classical ぬ, ...


8

I think the correct form in standard Japanese is [来]{く}ればよかったのに, since Wiki says 仮定形 of 来る is くれ. I think こればよかったのに is a typo or an error. Maybe the person who wrote this uses a regional dialect and typed これば (unconsciously or carelessly?), and it was not converted into kanji so they just left it as it was.


8

Yes, [来]{き}おる is a combination of [来]{く}る and [居]{お}る, although 居る in this usage is usually written in hiragana in the modern Japanese. Adding おる after the continuative form of a verb usually means that the speaker is looking down upon the subject of the verb. See sense 〔2〕-[2] in Daijirin and sense 3-① in Daijisen.


8

Yes, you are missing something important in the second sentence 「よく道を聞いてもらいます。」. Your understanding of the first is good, judging from the TL. The second sentence, by the way, is 100% grammatical but its content/meaning is more than just weird. It is highly unlikely that a policeman would say it unless there was an incredibly super-shy policeman ...


6

My understanding is that ます is an inflectable function word (助動詞), so I'm wondering why the negative form ends with ん. Is that a contraction of ぬ perhaps? Yes, the final -n is from negative -nu. This should make sense as -nu attaches to the irrealis, which is ma-se since mas- is サ変. (Also why is the 未然形 ませ rather than something more regular, like ...


6

In the Vて+V case, I think loosely translating て as "by" here helps give a little intuition: 歩いて渡る "cross by walking" 歩かないで渡る "cross (not by walking)" 歩いて渡らない "not (cross by walking)" However, this intuition does not hold with auxiliary verbs (補助動詞{ほじょどうし}), and certainly not with inflectable particles (助動詞{じょどうし}). With auxiliary verbs, you ...


5

It's [歩]{ある}かないで[渡]{わた}る cross without walking 歩いて渡らない not cross on foot In this case you want the second option. For "not eating" it is usually 食べていない I haven't eaten whereas 食べないでいる is used to put emphasis on the duration of staying without eating, but 食べていない also implies a continued state of being without food. (There is more on ...


5

In Japanese, a 助動詞 is a conjugatable particle, as opposed to 助詞 which do not conjugate. Like noun, verb etc, 助動詞 is now considered a part of of speech. The terminology is rather unfortunate, but originally (early Meiji) it was sub-classified under the category of verb (動詞). This is due to the influence of English in which 助動詞 represents "auxiliary verbs" ...


5

The suffix なさい does not function like the verb なさる ("to do"). Syntactically: the suffix なさい attaches to the 連用形 of verbs the verb なさる behaves essentially exactly like する: it is either is on its own, or attaches to the root of any suru-verb. Semantically: the suffix なさい makes the verb into an imperative and provides no honorification (it almost ...


5

The conjugation of 〜ぬ (or, more properly, 〜ず) is as follows in classical Japanese: Predicative form (終止形): 〜ず Attributive form (連体形): 〜ぬ Adverbial form (連用形): 〜ず Realis form (已然形): 〜ね As you can see, it is somewhat defective; the missing conjugations are sometimes supplemented by the corresponding forms of 〜ざる (more properly, 〜ざり). In modern western ...


4

When you contract te oku to t'oku, you're still conjugating oku, so the normal rules apply. The only reason this might not be clear is that kana prevents us from dividing t'oku into t' and oku. Subsidiary verbs following ~て are grammaticalized, and people tend to contract grammatical words. So naturally, there are a number of contractions of ~て with ...


4

Yes, all your assumptions about about the conjugations are correct. And far as comparing it to つもり, つもり simply means "intention (to do something)". It doesn't directly have anything to do with preparation or doing something beforehand. That it carries this mean in your example is incidental. With your 勉強しておく sentence, the preparation is explicit; with ...


4

The difference between 出る and 出てくる is that the later is specifically oriented towards the speaker (and if included, which is not always the case, also the hearer). Compare the next two examples: a. 家から出てきた。 [Someone] came out of the house. b. 家を出ていった。 [Someone] left the house. OR [Someone] left for good. In (a), we are located outside of the ...


4

Just like you say, 繋いでいく has a sense of progression, i.e. the process of "connecting to tomorrow" is intended to be continued (connecting tomorrow to the day after tomorrow, etc.). The counterpiece to ~ていく is ~てくる, meaning that something has been continued until now. Some phrases 頑張ってきた I have been giving my best (all this time). 楽しんでいこう Let's ...


4

In addition to the previous answer, often these forms are seen with an particle in the middle (は or も), and are used followed by for such as が・けど (examples borrowed/stolen from internet, any translation mistakes my own) 気持ち分からなくはないけど... It's not that I don't understand his feelings, but... (I do understand, but I still don't approve of his actions/won't ...


4

I'll just leave my comment above as an answer to maybe be ticked off since people seem to agree with it: I was taught that ~ておく means "to do something in preparation (for something else)", (ie. nr.1 there) but I'm sure there's many (probably similar) applications.. As sawa also points out in his comment, your point 2 and 4 doesn't seem to make much sense, ...


3

The main thing to take into account here is the ~てもらう that's used in the second sentence. With this construction, the subject receives the benefit of an action. To illustrate: 母【はは】に晩【ばん】ご飯【はん】を作【つく】ってもらった。 (My mother made dinner for me.) 先生【せんせい】に文章【ぶんしょう】を読【よ】んでもらった。 (The teacher read the sentence for us.) So in this case, it's not simply that ...


3

I edited the answer to make it clearer. I think む itself does not seem to have this functions (反語). But it is often used in rhetoric questions, which may make it sound like 反語. Such sentences often contain か or や. If you check the dictionary, you will find か and や is said to have this function too. One explanation is that it's misleading to say む has the ...


3

As @snailboat and @Chocolate have noted, I think you are actually thinking about something called 複合動詞{ふくごうどうし} (or compound verbs.) It is interesting to consider combining more than two verbs when creating 複合動詞{ふくごうどうし}... and it certainly is possible, according to the example word lists given in this paper by 林 翠芳 (LIN Cuifang). LIN gives examples of ...


3

Double negatives are used not just in Japanese. It's not that I'm not hungry... Since (-1)•(-1)=1, it makes only sense to use a double negative, if its meaning is different from the positive, viz. either stronger or weaker than the positive. In English, the double negative feels weaker than the positive. In Japanese, the double negative is stronger ...


3

This question is twofold or rather based on misunderstanding. You wrote "to express myself" twice, so I could not be misreading it. You have been saying things like 「行きたがっている。」 and 「 食べたがっていた。」 about yourself, correct? If so, you have been using「がる」 incorrectly or at least in a highly unnatural way. 「がる」 is generally used to describe other people's ...


2

It might help to think about what's going on with 「ておく」 and 「とく」 in romaji. " 勉強 shiteoku " The we just drop the 'e' ('cause we're cool kids)... " 勉強 shitoku " The same kind of thing happens all the time with 「い」"i" 「何食べている?」 becomes 「何たべてる?」 (just drop the 「い」) "Nani tabeteiru?" becomes "Nani tabeteru?" (Just drop the 'i') This can seem more ...


2

The answer up there you posted seems to make it seem pretty clear to me. 東北辺りでは これば?と言う人もいます 方言の一種ですね 読み仮名を付ける場合は「くれば」しかありません is translated to: Around Touhoku, there's some people who say 「これば」. It's just one type of local dialect. But when you write it down, the only correct way is 「くれば」。 So in other words, if you are in 東北 and say 「これば」you will be ...


2

It's a variant reading of 得る【える】, and is used to indicate possibility. The most common place I've seen this construction is in ありうる (or more frequently, the frustrated exclamation ありえない!, which is along the lines of "It can't be!"). If it has any additional nuances beyond simple possibility, I'm afraid I'll have to leave that to a native speaker to ...


2

もたくなくてもいい doesn't make sense at all. If this is from a native speaker of Japanese, it could be a dialect, but it's so uncommon. It should be 持たなくてもいいです。If you want to say something like, "you/I don't have to want to carry/hold it" 持ちたくなくてもいいです but it doesn't sound natural in this context "ベルボーイがいますから."  持ちたくなかったら、持たなくてもいいです is good.


1

Personally I'd avoid trying to do some deep grammatical analysis of this. Perhaps someone else can chime in on the historical and etymological aspects. We simply say やめなさい or おすわりなさい. It was one of the first grammatical forms I learned after getting married to a Japanese woman. :-) These can be viewed as informal variants of やめてください or すわってください or おすわりください. ...


1

I was taught ~ておく means "to leave something all set". In fact I've seen it written with ~て置く.



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