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15

This construct was common in classical Japanese, but now it is archaic or poetic. In classical Japanese, the attributive form of conjugating words can be directly followed by particles which attach to nouns (without inserting の). 目指すは would become 目指すのは in modern Japanese, 吹きやまぬは would become 吹きやまぬのは or 吹きやまないのは, and so on.


14

Well, there is indeed a stereotypical "Samurai way of talking" that you can see in Samurai films or in historical dramas (時代劇, Jidaigeki) on TV, but it's far from being authentic. In fact, Samurai talked in many different ways, depending on the era and their home province (after all, they were speaking in their dialect). As far as I know, the stereotypical ...


13

What exactly is なり? It is a conjugable suffix (助動詞). It attaches to the attributive (連体形), a substantive, or an uninflected adjective. It expresses designation (指定) or predication (断定). It is basically equivalent to である or だ. You may consider it a copula. As a conjugable suffix, it has multiple forms: nar-a, nar-i / ni, nar-i, nar-u, nar-e, nar-e. ...


11

守らむ(守らん) consists of the imperfective form (未然形) of 守る + the auxiliary verb む(ん); meaning #2 in 助動詞 む. I think it's the archaic form of 守ろう.


9

How would you translate this phrase into English? It would depend on context and what I was trying to say, but something like "Throw it away!" I guess. (I am sure that Sekkei Harada had good reasons for writing what he did, but this is the standard interpretation of the surface meaning of what Joshu said -- telling a questioner who believed himself to ...


8

A short answer: the form 恐るる (おそるる) is the attributive form (連体形; れんたいけい) of the verb 恐る (おそる) in classical Japanese. A long answer is as follows. Classical Japanese has different conjugation rules from modern Japanese. The verb 恐れる (おそれる; to fear) in modern Japanese was 恐る (おそる) in classical Japanese, and its attributive form was 恐るる (おそるる). If I ...


7

Were these forms prominently used at some point? Yes, they were predominately used in writing up until the end of World War II. Technically speaking, the movement to change the writing style to match the way people speak began in the early Meiji Era though. So, two writing styles existed for a long period of time. Why (and possibly, when) did their ...


7

Basically, it is literary (and archaic), but there are some situations when it is still appropriate to use it in a modern context. In the sense of "the coming [time or event]" e.g. 来【きた】る土曜日 = "the coming Saturday" Related to the above, in the form 来【きた】るべき, meaning "the coming [thing]", "the [thing] that is sure to come", e.g. the title of Tezuka Osamu's ...


6

Tsuyoshi Ito has already answered this question, but I'd like to add one detail: I think I see 目指すは〜 a lot more than other verbs followed by は. Although I can't find it in any dictionaries, from personal experience I think it might be common enough to be considered something like a set phrase, or possibly a holdover from when this grammar was more common. ...


5

Just doing a quick survey of the kanji spellings used for けり in the first five books of the Man'yōshū, after excluding false positives (matches for けり belonging to -ku verbs), here's the breakdown for spellings by frequency and 甲類 (ke1) vs. 乙類 (ke2): 来: 21 -- N/A, non-phonetic use 家里: 11 -- ke1ri 家利: 5 -- ke1ri 家理: 2 -- ke1ri 鶏里: 2 -- ke1ri 計理: 1 -- ke1ri ...


5

The title and the body seem to ask two different questions, but I'll answer them both. 「うるさい」 as 'fussy' is not at all archaic. 彼はラーメンにうるさいからいい店を知っている。 On the other hand, in all my years of speaking with Japanese friends and family, I have never heard of using 草 as a derogative.


5

No, it can't. へ as a particle in Japanese maintains the meaning of direction and is unrelated to any meaning of "and." Furthermore, the pronunciation of "he" i Chinese is quite different from the pronunciation of へ in Japanese, so even that much is a but of a stretch. They're alike in romanization only. This is even more irrelevant because when Japanese ...


5

Since this is a very old construction, I don't think there is an absolutely clear origin, but my understanding is that the popular theory is       k-u + ar-i → k-i-ar-i → ker-i where k-u is the カ変動詞 "to come" and ar-i is the ラ変動詞 "to be". However, there is also a minority theory of       ki ...


4

It is a compound of English "back" and German "schön" ("beautiful").


4

The kanji script that you see in the first (rightmost) line of your picture, as well as in seal is called [篆]{てん}書体.


2

These are classical verb forms. To be precise, the ones you have cited are all examples of the predicative form (終止形) of a -e/-u bigrade verb (下二段活用動詞). The predicative form became disused as early as the Muromachi period, and the modern form with -eru was predominant by the Edo period. (In fact, the spoken language of the Edo period is more or less where ...


2

As for 草, as a prefix it means "informal". I suppose that meaning can overlap with "substandard" but it's not taken to be derogatory. My dictionary (旺文社国語辞典) gives these examples: 草競馬、草野球、草芝居、草相撲


1

Absolutely not. 和 doesn't even mean "and" in Chinese generally – only in Mandarin. Moreover the on-yomi for 和 are わ and か, as expected – at the time Chinese words were borrowed, the /h/ phoneme was pronounced with the lips (most likely [p] or [ɸ]). The etymology of the particle へ itself is well-understood: it derives from a (now extinct) noun meaning ...


1

You should watch the anime Rurouni Kenshin, or read the mangas (since when you read you can be 100% sure of what's written ^^)


1

Watch japanese samurai movies with real actors, one my sensei let us watch some of those if we finish the test very soon :P



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