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41

The reason for the western language learners' confusion when facing the so-called "two types of Japanese adjectives" is that they try to find similar constructs to their own native language in Japanese. And when they fail (since Japanese has no real adjectives at all), the naive learner or teacher (which unfortunately includes most textbook writers, who are ...


13

新しい is a famous example of metathesis. Originally, it was [新]{あら}たし. Over the time, the positions of ら and た have switched, and the new form [新]{あたら}し was created, which evolved into today's standard form 新しい, and today, the old form is preserved only as the na-adjective 新た. Na-adjectives are often used to incorporate Chinese words, and those words generally ...


13

You can use なる (to become) to indicate change, as follows: うまくなる (い-adjective, い->く) 上手になる (な-adjective + に) These both mean "to become good/skilled". Then for "to become more skilled" you can use もっと, さらに or 前より: もっと上手になる to become better さらに上手になる to become even better 前より上手になる to become better than before


13

Relative clauses in English In English, relative clauses are formed by removing something, leaving behind a gap. 1a) I kicked the ball 1b) I wrote with the pen 1c) I entered the building 1d) I played in the garden In each example, we'll pull out the bolded noun phrase, leaving behind a gap: 2a) the ball [ which/that/∅ I kicked ____ ] ...


12

I will answer the two questions separately. How to make the form of i-adjectives before ございます Grammatically はよう, ありがとう, めでとう, たのしゅう, おいしゅう in these examples are called ウ音便 (うおんびん) of はやく, ありがたく, めでたく, たのしく, おいしく, respectively. 音便 (おんびん) means the form modified for easy pronunciation. The actual form of ウ音便 of an i-adjective depends on the vowel before く ...


12

低い hikui is "short in height" or "low", 短い mijikai is "short in length". 私は背が低い - I'm short (in stature) 天井の低い部屋 - a room with low ceiling 短いスカート - a short skirt 髪を短く切る - cutting one's hair short (Examples from プログレッシブ英和・和英中辞典) A short piece of string cannot be 低い and calling a low bridge 短い would mean the wrong thing.


11

The most important thing about げ is that it describes an observed quality. That is, you cannot use げ to refer to yourself: ○ 毎週楽しく聴かせていただいています。 I enjoy listening every week. × 毎週楽しげに聴かせていただいています。 (incorrect) The reason for this is that げ (which in kanji would be 気, but it's never written in kanji) is defined as そうだ or らしいようす, according to ...


11

They both mean the same thing but the nuance is as follows: 〜さ (as in 悲しさ、楽しさ、痛さ) indicates a degree or an amount of 〜 〜み (as in 悲しみ、楽しみ、痛み)indicates a state of being I find the following contrasting examples as definitive: A:「痛さはどれくらいですか?」 = implies amount B:「痛み*の程*はどれくらいですか?」 = we add 程(ほど) to indicate an amount However, to make things easier ...


11

Today these are mostly frozen forms that behaved like attributives (連体詞, see my answer here). Verbs in this class include 確たる (sure, certain) and 堂々たる (majestic). It's really not such a big class. Originally, they were descriptive nouns or descriptive verbs that were followed by the auxiliary verb たり (itself a combination of the particle と and the verb あり, ...


10

[See this question, which deals with the same pattern when used with verbs. I'll adapt my answer from that question to answer yours.] -そう after the stem of a adjective means "looking/sounding as if ___." おいしそう means "it looks as if it will be delicious." It is similar to constructions like おいしいみたい or おいしいよう, but -そう emphasizes evidence of the senses rather ...


10

[大]{だい}[好]{す}き and [大]{だい}[嫌]{きら}い are somewhat special in that sense. Both 大{だい} and 大{おお} can be used with other words, but usually 大{おお} goes with 訓{くん}読{よ}み words and 大{だい} with 音{おん}読{よ}み words: [大]{だい}[問]{もん}[題]{だい} serious problem 大{おお}急{いそ}ぎ pressing, urgent One exception would be 大{おお}掃{そう}除{じ}. Prefixing おお or だい, however, only ...


9

(The combination 難しい勉強 sounds slightly off to me, but I put this aside for the purpose of this question.) You have to distinguish noun+する and noun+をする. Noun+する: Once you attach する, what was originally a noun becomes a verb, and you cannot modify it with an adjective. Noun+をする: Attaching をする does not change a noun to a verb, and you can still modify it ...


9

If you're OK with エロい (as discussed in comments), there are examples like: エロい グロい ナウい But note that these are directly derived from エロ(チシズム), グロ(テスク), and ナウ ("now"). They were not borrowed into the language as -i adjectives; they were borrowed into the language as nouns and/or na adjectives, and then THOSE borrowings were turned into -i adjectives. ...


8

〜さ seems to describe a "measurable" amount, while 〜み seems to describe a general concept of the adjective. 悲しみ - the general concept of sadness 映画の悲しさ - the (amount of) sadness of that movie (possibly compared to other movies). That's how I tend to compare them. Also note that many of these types of adjective have corresponding verbs, such as ...


8

Some Preliminaries I first think it's necessary to clear up something that has been confusing me from the start: we are actually talking about two different classes of words. The first is the original set of three: 大【おお】きい、小【ちい】さい、可笑【おか】しい. The rest if the words we're talking about are all different than these three. The Special Three... And All The Rest ...


8

This construction is not limited to i-adjectives. You can have similar pairs with verbs. In general, you can continue a sequence of predicates with either The stem of a verb/i-adjective, or 彼は階段で転び、泣いた。 太陽光線は暖かいけどまぶしく、肌に刺すようです The て-form. 彼は階段で転んで、泣いた。 太陽光線は暖かいけどまぶしくて、肌に刺すようです The stem form is the nuetral way of connecting ...


7

The answer to this is that generally speaking, you can't use を with na-adjectives. This is not standard usage for most na-adjectives. Additionally, although Google searches also attest this kind usage for 嫌い (at least), the Tanaka Corpus is known to have errors, so it's best to be careful. A google search for "を嫌い" shows that the large majority of results, ...


7

The first thing to understand here is that じゃん forms a tag question, so it's entirely different than the negative form: このゲームは楽しい。 This game is fun. このゲームは楽しいじゃん。 This game is fun, isn't it? このゲームは楽しくない。 This game isn't fun. このゲームは楽しくないじゃん。 This game isn't fun, is it? じゃん is an informal version of じゃない; this use of じゃない as a tag question ...


7

My understanding is that な-adj are actually a completely different type of word that are closer to nouns but are taught as な-Adj. taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_adjectives adjectival verbs 形容詞 keiyōshi adjectival verbs, i-adjectives, adjectives, stative verbs adjectival nouns 形容動詞 keiyōdōshi adjectival nouns, ...


7

It depends on what you mean by “potential form.” Both れる/られる and ことができる are attached to a verb and their basic meaning is “have the ability to do.” (れる/られる has very different meanings such as passive and respect, but I ignore them for the purpose of this answer.) Because they are about the ability, the subject is usually animate. The combination of ...


7

This is not an answer but a collection of comments based on my personal feeling, but I post it as an answer because it is too long for a comment. First, here are two clear facts: のある simply does not have the same meaning as である. ピアニストのある私の姉 is incorrect. Replacing AであるB with AのB sometimes causes ambiguity. For example, ピアニストの姉 can mean either “(my) ...


7

There's no such word as あたたかった/あったかった at least in standard Japanese...^^ You'd surely be corrected if you wrote あたたかった in your essay or written test in primary school. You wouldn't find あったかった in children's books, too. I believe it's just a typo and doubt people (who speak Kanto or Kansai dialect at least) really use it in normal or casual conversations. ...


6

I'm putting this as an additional answer because I think it's valid and would have probably remained relatively unseen as a "buried" comment above. 短い means "short in length": length of your hair (髪の毛が短い), time it takes to do something (テストの時間は短かった), or a short distance (スーパーまでの短い距離) 低い means "low". The confusion comes in when it means "short height" ...


6

Nouns can always take the particles を and が. 形容動詞 cannot take these particles unless they are also classified as 名詞. As far as I know, neither 出色 or 特別 are independently-functioning nouns in standard grammar. One way you can check is by googling the exact phrase "特別を", for example. If hits are low, or if you get hits with 特別 set off from the を by quote ...


6

To expand on sawa's answer a bit (and sawa/anyone else, do correct me if I am wrong about any of this; it is mostly based on observation, not hard research)... This 手 originally conveyed a nuance of "handling," "doing," "dealing with", etc. and only later started to take on a more general meaning. So, speaking generally, the plain adjective might have many ...


6

微妙{びみょう} has been going through an evolution during the time I've been in Japan. There was a time, maybe about a decade ago, when it seemed to be one of those popular words that people would over use. Similar to how there was a fad for a time, mostly with younger people, to add 超{ちょう}("ultra~") to almost everything for emphasis. Being that slang is, by ...


6

Adjectives (both 形容詞 (a.k.a. -i adjectives) and 形容動詞 (a.k.a. -na adjectives)) do not have the same sort of conjugational forms as verbs do, but I'll do my best to give you an equivalent of the verb forms to which you're referring. They often just borrow from other verbs (mostly だ) when appropriate. I'll use 深い (deep) and 深刻な (deep, serious) as my examples, ...


6

In addition to くらい/ぐらい as @rintuan mentioned, ほど (meaning "extent" or "limit") is your friend: X is not as (adjective) as Y → ほど〜ない あの少年はお兄さんほど背が高くない → That boy is not as tall as his older brother. 生物学は物理学ほど面白くない → Biology is not as interesting as physics. Other comparisons: "to the extent of 〜" 今日はセーターを着るほど寒い → Today is cold ...


6

One usage of 「[大]{だい}」 that native speakers frequently use but Japanese-learners do not is in the form of 「[大]{だい}の」. It is treated like a compound word meaning "huge", "full-fledged", "very good", etc. 大の[宮崎]{みやざき}ファン = a huge (Hayao) Miyazaki fan 大のおとな = a full-fledged adult 大のなかよし = a very good friend 大のコーヒー[好]{ず}き = a real ...


5

I'll try to explain がる and がっている more generally, and then conclude with a direct answer about たがる and たがっている. As stated in When to use 欲しがる instead of 欲しい, it is strange to talk directly about the mental state of someone else. がる provides one medium for discussing your conjecture about another persons mental state, and roughly means "shows signs of X". It ...



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