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67

The reason for the western language learners' confusion when facing the so-called "two types of Japanese adjectives" is that they try to find similar constructs to their own native language in Japanese. And when they fail (since Japanese has no real adjectives at all), the naive learner or teacher (which unfortunately includes most textbook writers, who are ...


23

Relative clauses in English In English, relative clauses are formed by removing something, leaving behind a gap. 1a) I kicked the ball 1b) I wrote with the pen 1c) I entered the building 1d) I played in the garden In each example, we'll pull out the bolded noun phrase, leaving behind a gap: 2a) the ball [ which/that/∅ I kicked ____ ] ...


17

I will answer the two questions separately. How to make the form of i-adjectives before ございます Grammatically はよう, ありがとう, めでとう, たのしゅう, おいしゅう in these examples are called ウ音便 (うおんびん) of はやく, ありがたく, めでたく, たのしく, おいしく, respectively. 音便 (おんびん) means the form modified for easy pronunciation. The actual form of ウ音便 of an i-adjective depends on the vowel before く ...


17

Today these are mostly frozen forms that behaved like attributives (連体詞, see my answer here). Verbs in this class include 確たる (sure, certain) and 堂々たる (majestic). It's really not such a big class. Originally, they were descriptive nouns or descriptive verbs that were followed by the auxiliary verb たり (itself a combination of the particle と and the verb あり, ...


16

The most important thing about げ is that it describes an observed quality. That is, you cannot use げ to refer to yourself: ○ 毎週楽しく聴かせていただいています。 I enjoy listening every week. × 毎週楽しげに聴かせていただいています。 (incorrect) The reason for this is that げ (which in kanji would be 気, but it's never written in kanji) is defined as そうだ or らしいようす, according to Daijisen....


15

You can use なる (to become) to indicate change, as follows: うまくなる (い-adjective, い->く) 上手になる (な-adjective + に) These both mean "to become good/skilled". Then for "to become more skilled" you can use もっと, さらに or 前より: もっと上手になる to become better さらに上手になる to become even better 前より上手になる to become better than before


15

The misunderstanding here is that this isn't the negative conjugation of the word 少{すく}ない. This is the dictionary form. The negative conjugation of 少{すく}ない is 少{すく}なくない.


14

They both mean the same thing but the nuance is as follows: 〜さ (as in 悲しさ、楽しさ、痛さ) indicates a degree or an amount of 〜 〜み (as in 悲しみ、楽しみ、痛み)indicates a state of being I find the following contrasting examples as definitive: A:「痛さはどれくらいですか?」 = implies amount B:「痛み*の程*はどれくらいですか?」 = we add 程(ほど) to indicate an amount However, to make things easier ...


14

低い hikui is "short in height" or "low", 短い mijikai is "short in length". 私は背が低い - I'm short (in stature) 天井の低い部屋 - a room with low ceiling 短いスカート - a short skirt 髪を短く切る - cutting one's hair short (Examples from プログレッシブ英和・和英中辞典) A short piece of string cannot be 低い and calling a low bridge 短い would mean the wrong thing.


12

Some Preliminaries I first think it's necessary to clear up something that has been confusing me from the start: we are actually talking about two different classes of words. The first is the original set of three: 大【おお】きい、小【ちい】さい、可笑【おか】しい. The rest of the words we're talking about are all different than these three. The Special Three... And All The Rest ...


12

Here 大変 is used as a na-adjective. It's definition #3 in 研究社新和英中辞典: たいへん = "〈労力を要すること〉 a hard task; a difficult job." 仕事は大変だけど元気だよー She's saying her job is hard/tough and/or busy, but she's fine/healthy.


12

As answered, 少ない is not a negative form of an adjective, but rather already the dictionary form. It is only coincidentally pronounced the same way as the negative form of other い-adjectives. It might be interesting to know that the dictionary entry of すくない also shows alternative kanji (including archaic versions), where the only kana visible after the ...


11

[See this question, which deals with the same pattern when used with verbs. I'll adapt my answer from that question to answer yours.] -そう after the stem of a adjective means "looking/sounding as if ___." おいしそう means "it looks as if it will be delicious." It is similar to constructions like おいしいみたい or おいしいよう, but -そう emphasizes evidence of the senses rather ...


11

This is a pair of polarity items. One appears in positive contexts, the other in negative: イギリスの ジャムは とても おいしいです。 イギリスの ジャムは あまり おいしくありません。 Every language has words like these. For example, in English: I like pie, too. I don't like pie, either. Here, too and either are polarity items. In our positive sentence we use too, and in our ...


10

〜さ seems to describe a "measurable" amount, while 〜み seems to describe a general concept of the adjective. 悲しみ - the general concept of sadness 映画の悲しさ - the (amount of) sadness of that movie (possibly compared to other movies). That's how I tend to compare them. Also note that many of these types of adjective have corresponding verbs, such as ...


10

If you're OK with エロい (as discussed in comments), there are examples like: エロい グロい ナウい But note that these are directly derived from エロ(チシズム), グロ(テスク), and ナウ ("now"). They were not borrowed into the language as -i adjectives; they were borrowed into the language as nouns and/or na adjectives, and then THOSE borrowings were turned into -i adjectives. ...


10

(The combination 難しい勉強 sounds slightly off to me, but I put this aside for the purpose of this question.) You have to distinguish noun+する and noun+をする. Noun+する: Once you attach する, what was originally a noun becomes a verb, and you cannot modify it with an adjective. Noun+をする: Attaching をする does not change a noun to a verb, and you can still modify it ...


10

[大]{だい}[好]{す}き and [大]{だい}[嫌]{きら}い are somewhat special in that sense. Both 大{だい} and 大{おお} can be used with other words, but usually 大{おお} goes with 訓{くん}読{よ}み words and 大{だい} with 音{おん}読{よ}み words: [大]{だい}[問]{もん}[題]{だい} serious problem 大{おお}急{いそ}ぎ pressing, urgent One exception would be 大{おお}掃{そう}除{じ}. Prefixing おお or だい, however, only ...


9

This is not an answer but a collection of comments based on my personal feeling, but I post it as an answer because it is too long for a comment. First, here are two clear facts: のある simply does not have the same meaning as である. ピアニストのある私の姉 is incorrect. Replacing AであるB with AのB sometimes causes ambiguity. For example, ピアニストの姉 can mean either “(my) ...


9

When to drop "な" depends on the phrase. 客観的事実 is a very common set phrase, but 印象的事実 is not. You have to usually say "それは印象的な事実(でした)", unless you were a philosopher and ready to give 印象的事実 some definition. 的 is not special; there are several kanji which can connect two nouns and help to make longer compounds without hiragana particles. ~風 (~ style) ...


9

I hear rarely ぷっくりしている but ぽっちゃりしている is commonly used as the meaning of chubby. I think ぽっちゃりしている isn't offensive more than デブ and 太っている and it is the pretty way of saying of fatness. However how the person feel the level as fatness is different with each person.


9

The word you're looking for is 体にいい (literally: good for your body in other words healthy healthful). 寿司は美味しいし体にもいいからかなり好きよ。 Sushi is delicious and it's even good for your health. I quite like it, you know. I would not vouch for the naturalness of my example sentence but that's the idea.


9

This isn't simply 美味しい, but 美味しそう. The そう suffix means 'appears to be', and it takes な. When I saw a photo of delicious-looking food, I couldn't help but drool.


8

To expand on sawa's answer a bit (and sawa/anyone else, do correct me if I am wrong about any of this; it is mostly based on observation, not hard research)... This 手 originally conveyed a nuance of "handling," "doing," "dealing with", etc. and only later started to take on a more general meaning. So, speaking generally, the plain adjective might have many ...


8

After some research, there seems to be little difference in meaning. In some situations, maybe ease of pronunciation is more of a guide than nuance of meaning. For example, in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ, 少納言), we have 大きな木 154 results 大きい木 12 results (But 木 is clearly no abstract concept.) However, my question stated ...


8

Dictionaries say すぎる in this meaning is placed: after the 連用形 of a verb, like 動きすぎる after the stem of an i-adjective, like やさしすぎる and after the stem of a na-adjective, like しずかすぎる. つまらない is an adjective so I think つまらなすぎる is natural.  Generally, when すぎる is placed after ない: in the case of the adjective ない, it uses さ, like なさすぎる as you say in the case ...



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