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5

「と」 here is a quotative particle used to quote 「ふん」; It is not an abbreviation of anything. 「と」, all by itself, is in its full form. It may look like 「と」 is at the beginning of the sentence, but in essence, it is the same as: 「ふん」と、彼女は鼻を鳴らし、中学の制服である・・・・ A direct quote, no matter how short it is, is often treated as a full line in stories, which is what ...


3

Turns out this character is a fairly common ryakuji (abbreviated character) of the common honorific [御]{ご} go-, as in [御飯]{ごはん} gohan, so the full word is [御夢想]{ごむそう} go-musou, the name of the hot spring where the ryokan was located. Another example here.


1

Most of the acronyms I know are pronounced phonetically as they are in both your example and most of the time in English. However just as English turns some acronyms into their own words, the same happens in Japanese. I can't think of a specifically defined rule and to further muddy the waters, some of these are influenced by some of the people or companies ...



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