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18

Your book is correct. When talking about human body temperature, 三十 is often omitted, probably because it is obvious. While there is nothing wrong with saying 37度8分 (37.8 degrees Celsius), it is often abbreviated to 7度8分. Even 37度 (37 degrees Celsius) without a fractional part sometimes becomes 7度. You cannot abbreviate the temperature when it is 40 ...


17

It has two main usages: As an abbreviation of the counter word 個/箇. More often it has a further word after it and it's read か. In this case it's sometimes written as ヵ or even か so the reading is more obvious. Examples: 一ヶ月(いっかげつ) 二ヶ国語 三ヶ所 Sometimes it's used alone just like 個 is (and it's read こ too), perhaps as shorthand. I've rarely seen people do ...


10

I do not think that I have ever seen 日語 for 日本語 in Japanese. Both Daijirin and Daijisen list the word 日語 with the meaning “the Japanese language,” but Daijirin notes that the word is used in Chinese, Korean and so on. Indeed 日語 sounds like a Chinese word to me. There are a few words which mean almost the same thing as 日本語: 国語 (こくご): Literally means ...


8

Section 10 - "二・小・原" is "二輪・小型特殊・原付". So it means "motrocycle/small spacial veicle/moped". Section 11 - "他" is anything except "二輪・小型特殊・原付". So it means "大型・中型・普通・大型特殊・けん引". Section 12 - "二種" is "Class 2". It's "commercial passenger-carrying vehicle". Section 13 first row 大型 - Large vehicle (e.g. dump truck) 中型 - Medium vehicle (e.g. truck) 普通 - ...


8

I think that it is rare to use the words such as A子 and B子 as an abbreviation. They are placeholder names for females, and they do not usually mean that the names actually end with 子. Just like suffix 子, suffix 男 (such as A男) is often used to make placeholder names for males. (Here is a random example which uses A男 and B子.) Some people use letters with 子 ...


8

It is not clear cut, but my impression is that the tendency is that 日曜日 means a particular day that is Sunday whereas 日曜 means Sunday in general or series of Sundays. 日曜日に出掛けます。 'I will go out on next Sunday.' 日曜に出掛けます。 'I go out on Sundays.' When it is clear that it is not about a particular day but is about a series of days, this ...


7

It depends on the words and how they are pronounced, although the pattern you noticed is common. For example, the following don't fit the pattern you see: Brad Pitt -> ブラピ Ice Cream -> アイス Convenience Store -> コンビニ There has been a lot of linguistic studies about this and many patterns that exist. One rule is that they are always truncated ...


6

It is common to abbreviate a loanword to four morae, and when the original loanword is a compound word consisting of two components, then it is common to do so by taking the first two morae from each component. Sometimes sokuon (little tsu: ッ) and chōon (ー) are skipped when counting two morae for this purpose. リモートコントロール (remote control) or リモートコントローラー ...


6

動 is 動詞, verb. ラ means the verb conjugates on the r-. 下一 (shimo ichi) and 下二 (shimo ni) are abbreviations for 下一段 (shimo ichidan "lower monograde") and 下二段 (shimo nidan "lower bigrade"). These are verb conjugation types. There are other conjugation types: 四段 (yodan), 五段 (godan), 上一段 (kami ichidan), 上二段 (kami nidan), サ変 (sa-hen), カ変 (ka-hen), ナ変 (na-hen), ...


6

It means kuuki yomenai. A friend explained this concept as follows: In Japanese culture, the social protocol calls for utmost attention to the right "atmosphere." Certain actions can only be considered appropriate when the "atmosphere" of the time and place allowed for them to be carried out. In Japanese lingo, it is "reading the air" ...


5

In written Japanese the abbreviations mm, kg, km, mg, cm, ml etc. are used as early as the second year of primary school. Their correct pronunciation is ミリメートル, キログラム, キロメートル, ミリグラム, センチメートル, ミリリットル respectively. In everyday language, mm and ml are abbreviated to ミリ (although ミリグラム seems to stay as is; see comments below), kg, km are abbreviated to キロ and cm ...


4

動 stands for 動詞, and means it is a verb. ラ means that the last consonant of the stem is "r" (belongs to ラ row), which does not have significance in modern account for this type of verbs. 下一 stands for 下一段活用, a terminology used in traditional grammar. In modern terms, it means the stem ends with "e". I.e., the stem is "otozure-". 下ニ stands for 下ニ段活用, a ...


4

The wikipedia article for 自動販売機 confirms that 自販機 can be used as a short form but doesn't list any other variants. 販売機{はんばいき} is another option. The only slang term I know is ガチャ for those capsule vending machines (with little toys or something inside).


3

Never heard or seen 自販 used as a shortened form of 自動販売機 or 自販機. (I have lived half of my life in Tokyo and the other half in Nagoya, and I am a Japanese-speaker to begin with.) The only times I have heard/seen 自販 have been when it was used to mean a "car dealer" (short for 自動車販売). I am more than curious to find out why that answer has so many upvotes.   ...


2

When you say But sometimes I get to see xxx曜 only without the "Day" Kanji. do you mean in your books? Or other places too? I personally only use it in informal situations like speaking with/emailing friends. I can't say I've ever seen it written this way non-informally.



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