文法. A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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Maths sentences: 足す and 掛ける

I noticed a lack of case marking particles in mathematical sentences: 1足す2は3である。 3掛ける4は12である。 足す and 掛ける are verbs, does subject and object analysis apply to this? Do they take on the ...
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325 views

Is this grammatical: 彼は映画スターであり、政治家もだ。

I was about to ask a question but I can't without first confirming, Is this sentence: 彼は映画スターであり、政治家もだ。 grammatically correct, and mean: He is a movie star and also a politician. ==Follow-up ...
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2answers
806 views

Does [V-stem]に行く works for verbs whose stems are not stand-alone words by themselves?

I was taught that there is a grammatical form which goes like this: [V-stem]に行く For example: 遊びに行く, which means "Go. Reason: to 遊ぶ" I was wondering does this grammatical form work for verbs whose ...
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2answers
947 views

What's the meaning of 〜ておきます?

What exactly does 〜ておきます mean in this context? 旅行{りょこう}する前{まえ}にホテルを予約{よやく}しておきます。 Is this trying to say something like "Before traveling, reserve a room". Is this a suggestion? An order? (If so, why ...
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270 views

Is it true that all nouns must be able to accept a が particle and a を particle?

Is it true that all nouns must be able to accept a が particle and a を particle? I was curious about how we could form a sentence with: 特別が 特別を 出色が 出色を
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1k views

What's the difference between でしょうか and ですか at the end of a question?

I am having a little trouble understanding the nuance of でしょうか in comparison to ですか. People say it makes it more hesitant and polite, but that doesn't explain the nuance enough for me. Why would you ...
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788 views

What is the し particle and how do you use it?

I understand that obviously every Japanese textbook will go into this topic briefly... but I can never really come to grips with what it means in Japanese. If anyone could link me to a good Japanese ...
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351 views

Is there a relationship between ~たところで and するところだった?

I am studying an JLPT book on listening, and in two questions very close to each other, the grammatical forms ~たところで and するところだった came up. My book defines ~たところで as giving an impression of giving up ...
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294 views

When should the polite form of 〜たり be used?

I've noticed that I don't see 〜ましたり used very often, but it does seem to be an accepted form. I believe this form can be broken down like this: 動詞{どうし}の連用形{れんようけい}+「ます」の連用形{れんようけい}+「たり」 My ...
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281 views

Meaning of として in this sentence

I don't get why として is used instead of を in this sentence, as it doesn't seem to fit with the "as" sense that I know. 品詞と無関係にコソアドとして一括して扱うのが一般的です。 What I understand is this: Treating コソアド as ...
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130 views

とまらない in One Punch Man OP meaning とまれない (negative potential)

The negative form of 止{と}まる (to stop) is 止まらない, and the negative potential form is 止まれない. However, I've noticed that 止まらない can be used in the sense of 止まれない. For example, the OP for One Punch Man ...
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560 views

how could a sentence end with (noun + “よ”?)

I'd thought you cannot end a sentence with a noun. Rather: noun + だ。 noun + です。 noun + である。 noun + であります。 noun + でございます。 But in a movie dialogue, I heard: "大切なのは、心よ。" Ending a sentence with a noun ...
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566 views

Trouble understanding this use of あっての

I've previously asked two separate questions regarding あっての, (and there's a third on here from Pacerier) and I thought I had it figured out, but then I found this sentence (from a JLPT practice book--...
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438 views

I can't quite understand the meaning of 自分でも

I can't quite derive the meaning of 自分でも from the parts that make it up. Here are the example sentences I don't get with the offered translations. 自分でもそれをやってみます。 Do it by yourself. ...
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211 views

「を大好き」と「が大好き」の違いは何ですか?

What's the difference in usage and meaning when using を with 大好き or 好き versus using が? I would think that using が is stating that the subject that you are talking about is loved, while using を is ...
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2answers
601 views

Multiple “wo”s in a sentence?

I had always been told this never happened. I was a little skeptical, but since I never saw a sentence with two of the particle, I gradually came to accept that it was probably true. Well ironically, ...
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3answers
262 views

Reason for 「のか」 and 「かもしれません」 in 「何を言っているのかわからないかもしれませんけど」

One time I was formulating sentences on a website, to practice my Japanese and get natives to correct them. I had written 「何が言ってわかりませんけど」 which I now understand was wrong, but when they corrected my ...
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2answers
291 views

Do 食べないです and 食べなかったです have the same level of politeness as 食べません and 食べませんでした have?

Up to now, I am still confused with this very basic grammar. Non-past Informal : 食べる (+) and 食べない (-) Formal : 食べます (+) and 食べません (-) Past Informal : 食べた (+) and 食べなかった (-) Formal : 食べました (+) ...
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1answer
564 views

Why is は appropriate for てはいけない?

Why does てはいけない use は? I know it's a construction, but where did it come from? て form verbs are not nouns, it doesn't make sense to me that は could be used with them.
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377 views

What is meaning of 「〜ないように思えてなりません」?

Can somebody explain the grammar and meaning of this expression in the sentence below? It may be just my poor understanding of how なりません functions in the language but I'd appreciate an explanation. ...
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234 views

A bunch of questions about ところ

I think the word ところ in my questions have nothing to do with 所{ところ}. Please correct me if I am wrong. Let us consider the following sentences. Case 1 これから食{た}べるところなんですが。。。 今食{た}べているところなんですが。。。 今食{た}...
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528 views

When an -i form (連用形{れんようけい}) of a verb seems to be a suffix rather than a prefix?

In a previous question about コーヒー割り I learned that 割り is a form of the verb 割{わ}る "to dilute". Now I'm trying to understand the grammatical process by which this 割り form of 割る can be added to nouns ...
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264 views

is there any difference between せめて and 少なくとも?

I know they both mean "at least", unless I'm wrong.
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233 views

what does 何(+counter)+も+volitional mean? e.g. 何機も買おう

I found this sentence as an answer to the question: "What are some of the symbols of Japan's wealth?" 次期主力戦闘機を何機も買おうとしていること I'm not sure whether it means they're buying a lot of next-generation ...
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2answers
181 views

Activity verbs vs Change verbs

My textbook makes a difference between verbs that describe activities and verbs that describe changes. Two examples given are: 話す - activity 結婚する - change It then goes on to say that 話している ...
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461 views

Use of が vs を with transitive verb, 受け入れる(+もらえる)

This is probably fairly basic but, not being a native speaker, I'd like to confirm if my understanding of grammar of the following sentence (from 中上級日本語, Feb'14) is correct and what is natural. In ...
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262 views

Function of 「masu-stem」+よる in Kansai-ben

Several years ago an acquaintance introduced me to the Hiroshima dialect and mentioned clear distinction between perfect and continuous aspects: Example 1: The bus is coming. Standard: バスが来ている。 ...
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2k views

The meaning of ~のみ

What is the meaning/significance of ~のみ? Does it have anything to do with 身 or 見? Some example sentences: しかし、予算の制限のため、差し当たり実験機のみを製造することになった。 But budget restrictions have allowed them to ...
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2answers
690 views

The topic is the restaurant, or the conversation is at the restaurant?

I have this sentence in my JLPT textbook: 話{はなし}の種{たね}に、新{あたら}しくできたレストランに食{た}べに行{い}ってみた。 I think I understand the part after the comma, which I believe is saying, "... tried to go eat at the new ...
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236 views

I don't understand this phrase もっとだ

I am watching a certain show at the moment where someone is talking about wanting to kill evil creatures. Please don't judge this question as childish just because the extract is from an anime. He ...
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1answer
245 views

When is “事” used instead of こと for past experiences?

In the "ことがあります" construction about past experiences, when is "事" used, and when is "こと" used? The textbook used in class uses "こと": 六本木の おんせんに 行った ことがあります。 If it wanted to use "事" instead of "...
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4answers
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What's the difference between ~てある and ~た (past form)?

As I understand it てある is rather different to ている in that it refers to a resultant state rather than an ongoing action. However I wonder, what then is the practical difference between a resultant ...
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1k views

What's the meaning of “という” at the end of a sentence?

I'm reading about this grammar in my book but I don't get it. According to the book it means - そうだ and - らしい. Here is an example: UPDATE: Full Sentence: 従来、病院といえば白い壁が基調の空間であった。 しかし、白くて冷たい壁を見ていると ...
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1answer
244 views

Is saying 「XはYは…」 acceptable?

In いっすんぼうし, a very popular fairy tale, this line appears: だいじんは からだは ちいさいけれど げんきな いっすんぼうしを たいそう きにいり じぶんの いえで はたらかせることにしました。 Is 「だいじんは からだは」 grammatically correct? What would be done to make ...
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353 views

Do 〜によれば and 〜によると differ regarding the speaker's opinion of the following statement being true?

From a newspaper: 16日の発表によると、ドイツ経済の今年の成長率は2.1%、来年が1.8%の見込み。 I think that means: According to the report of April 16th, it is expected that the growth of the German economy will be 2.1% ...
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1answer
134 views

X times bigger than

How can I say: X is 5 times bigger than Y (?)
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170 views

が and passive verb referring to modified noun

落ち葉が敷き詰められた庭。 Why is the passive form used here? Is it because it's reffering to 庭? I thought with passive it should have been: 庭は落ち葉に敷き詰められた。 Can someone explain the rule here?
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323 views

What is the difference between 「Adj-さと言ったらなかった」&「Adj-いと言ったらなかった」?

Could someone explain the difference between the following two expressions: 恐ろしさといったらなかった 恐ろしいといったらなかった I am struggling with the first which my text book tells me means とても恐ろしかった. Why is ...
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1answer
304 views

What is the difference between ふくむ and ふくめる

The Progressive-Japanese English Dictionary suggests 含める is the same as one meaning of 含む but it is not explained. Is this correct? I have two theories: 1. 含める= 含む when the latter means include/...
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1answer
160 views

Help parsing a sentence with possibly embed relatives

“はっきりとしてくれないわたしが好きな人”より“はっきりとしているわたしを好きな人”を憎からず はっきりとして=Be clear くれない=not give to me わたしが好きな人=The person I like [はっきりとしてくれない]>わたしが好きな人 so はっきりとしてくれない modifies わたし or はっきりとしてくれない ...
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1answer
220 views

How to read 連体形 + 上

Taking an example from a page naruto linked in another thread: 外国人が日本語を習得する上で難しい点がたくさんあります。 My inclination is to read this as うえ since it's followed by で, however I've got a nagging feeling it ...
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1answer
171 views

What are the と, という, and の doing in this sentence?

「帰ってきました!ただいまー!」声を張り上げて足を踏み入れると、広がるのは地下室という響きとはかけ離れた生活臭のする小部屋だった。 I'm confused as to what と does in this sentence. Is it a quoting particle or conditional? 地下室という響きとは I'm completely lost as to ...
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2answers
655 views

What's the difference between the に祈る【いのる】 and を祈る【いのる】 forms?

What's the difference between the に祈る and を祈る forms? Like what's the difference between (1.) and (2.): うまく行くのに祈ってくださいね。 うまく行くのを祈ってくださいね。 EDIT: What's the difference between the ように祈る and のを祈る ...
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3answers
588 views

Meaning of 「という訳でもないのだが」

I have a question about the meaning of という訳でもないのだが in the following passage. If I'm understanding correctly 「いたからと言ってなんだ」 - 「居たからと言って何だ」 would translates something like - "even if he/she was, than ...
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1answer
117 views

Topic particle after “expression of time”

I am reading chapter 4 from the JLPT N5 book, where I found the following sentence: 昨日勉強しましたか。 After 昨日, why wasn't there a topic particle? Is "昨日は勉強しましたか。" an incorrect sentence?
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1answer
191 views

Are な and だ both copula verbs?

What is the grammatical relationship between these two words? Are they just different words expressing the same concept, is one the derivation of the other or is a third option true?
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1answer
500 views

Can に mean the same thing as から?

あの野郎、どんだけジークさんに恩を受けたと思っていやがるんだ! In this sentence, does に mean the same thing as から ? Thank you very much for help!
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1answer
115 views

くれる, あげる, and もらう

Which pair is correct? A 父がお正月に一万円あげました。私は今までに、こんなにたくさんもらったことがなかったので、とてもうれしかったです。 B 父がお正月に一万円くれました。私は今までに、こんなにたくさんくれたことがなかったので、とてもうれしかったです。
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vote
2answers
145 views

Using と to link clauses instead of て

I've seen several posts saying that と cannot be used to mean 'and' when linking clauses. They say it should be treated as 'when'. I have come across several sentences in my studies that do not support ...
0
votes
1answer
367 views

ですら・でも・さえ・だろう(と/が)。 Are there any differences?

I am just wondering if anyone can explain the differences between these in terms of nuances. When I say nuances, can you give examples of whether one is for more polite situations, or whether one is ...