文法. A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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4
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92 views

Should the tense of predicate in main clause be the same as the tense of predicate in the relative clause?

It is a very basic question that I need to be confirmed. Consider the following sentence (taken from a book titled Essential Japanese Grammar by Masahiro Tanimori and Eriko Sato). ...
3
votes
2answers
128 views

Do X and Y have the same state when using ~X にかぎらず Y?

Consider the following sentences. A: 女性に限らず、男性も化粧品を使うようになった。 My translations: A'1: Using cosmetics is not limited to women but also has been started by men. A'2: Not only women but ...
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Why did the author use に in the following sentence?

Why did the author use に in the following sentence? 理解しかねて首をかしげる会場の様子に、司会役が「もう少し具体的に」と重ねてたずねた。 たずねる needs に but for animate objects such as human beings. In the above sentence, に is used after ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Is a palindrome a thing?

A palindrome is a word or phrase that is the same backwards and forwards, such as "Bob", "aibohphobia" or "A man, a plan, a canal: Panama." In English, as well as many other languages, this is a ...
1
vote
1answer
162 views

Inconsistency in applying direct object to 勝つ

As far as I know, the verb 勝つ takes a direct object with に as 彼はチェス試合に勝った。He won the chess match. and takes an indirect object with に対して as 彼は私に対してチェス試合に勝った。He won the chess match against me. ...
5
votes
2answers
413 views

Who is the subject of this sentence?

Most of the time when I read Japanese sentences, I have no confidence whether the speaker or another person is the subject. Let's see one example as follows. 主人は、料理にかけては、誰にも引けを取らないと信じている。 I ...
5
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4answers
200 views

Function of は in にはなる

The author is complaining that she hates men's cooking but acknowledges that somewhere in the world there may be some that she likes. She then says: だからただしくは、今まで喰らってきた男の料理を私は好きにはなれなかった、と言うべきなんだろう。 ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

How to determine the scope of modifiers in long sentences?

I found a difficulty to determine the scope of modifiers in long sentences. To make it clearer, see the following sentences. My translation may be wrong. Sentence 1 新しい工場を建てるに当たって(は)、環境への影響などを調べ、...
4
votes
3answers
208 views

Saying for so much time / for so long

I want to know how to form the sentence "I looked at the water for so long that people thought I was crazy" but I'm not sure of how I can express "for so long" in Japanese I thought of ...
1
vote
2answers
115 views

Is Japanese similar to English in that saying 享 twice in 享年 means last last year?

In English it's possible to say last last year to informally say "the year before the last". Is it similar in Japanese that I can say きょうきょう年 to mean the same?
4
votes
2answers
112 views

と聞いて in this sentence

山に登るのは大変そうだから、本当は行きたくなかった。 Climbing mountain seems difficult so truthfully, i didn't want to go... The second sentence is the one i need help with... I wasn't sure if i get it right... でも ロープウェイを ...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Using から (because) with nouns, adjectives and verbs

Could I please check my understanding of how から is used with nouns etc? I today read what I think were some rules. から needs だ/です depending on what precedes it. しずか ですから 散歩しましょう - -na adj, needs です ...
4
votes
2answers
69 views

What is the nuance of 寝てもらう in this context?

Consider the following sentence. 私のアパートは狭い上に家具がたくさんあるので、お客さんが来た時、寝てもらう場所がない。 What is the nuance of using 寝てもらう rather than just 寝る? The guest is sleeping for my purpose?
7
votes
2answers
884 views

Why is it incorrect to say 「寒くて、窓を閉めてください」?

寒くて、窓を閉めてください I thought it can mean: Since it's cold, please close the window. The book said we cannot use words that express speakers intent in the form of requests, order, permissions, ...
3
votes
2answers
79 views

Difference between 弾けるように and 弾きたい

I have a sentence example, the translation being "I want to be able to play the piano" ピアノが 弾けるように なりたい Can somebody please tell me how this differs to ピアノを 弾きたいんです I am not understanding why ように ...
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3answers
21k views

How do you use “koto”?

My book says that "koto" can convert verbs into nouns. It can also convert adjectives and adverbial nouns, but what does that mean? It gives examples like: Tori o tsukamaeru koto wa kantan ja ...
6
votes
1answer
389 views

Unknown word and strange use of えと

Take the sentence: バッサリいこうぜ!うっとうしいだろ[長]{なげ}えとよ。 The first, from context, I think means "You're gonna get a haircut!" I can't find バッサリ in the dictionary, though. The second probably says "It's ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

What additional meaning that なんだ add to the sentence

A. 彼は大学生ですよ B. 彼は大学生なんだよ What difference that なんだ makes in this sentence? For A, I understand it well as "He is a college student!" For B, eventhough i have read much article written about なんだ... ...
6
votes
1answer
102 views

State of being in a relative clause help

I want to know how to form the sentence "We know that this is a small shop, but [...] . " I thought I could write it as "私たちはそれが小さい店だことを知っています," but it turned out that this sentence is gramatically ...
3
votes
2answers
112 views

Saying something was happening when something happened

I want to know what is the form for "when" in a phrase like "I was reading a book, when someone knocked on my door." I'm aware of the usage of "toki" in phrases like "When I was a teacher..." and "...
6
votes
1answer
879 views

What does として mean here?

警視庁は12日、父親を鈍器のようなもので殴ったとして東京都中野区に住む少年を、傷害の疑いで逮捕した。 Tell me please, what does として mean in this sentence?
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1answer
53 views

What is the function of として in this sentence? (Vたとして) [duplicate]

From a news article: 福島県いわき市の建設会社「武蔵建設」の敷地に男性の遺体を埋めたとして、死体遺棄容疑で同社の元社長ら男6人が逮捕された事件で、県警は7日、強盗殺人容疑で6人を再逮捕した。 What role is として fulfilling? It seems like it may be functioning as a sort of and? My ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Help with understanding why “のか” is used in this sentence [duplicate]

I read this sentence: "私はなぜ彼がこれをしているのか、分からない" The sentence is supposed to mean "I don't understand why he is doing this," and I think it is grammatically correct since I found it in a japanese site ...
4
votes
1answer
305 views

Is it possible to use ~さえ~ば with more than one requirement?

I have not found any sentence using ~さえ~ば with more than one requirement. Let's consider the following sentence with 3 requirements I am healthy I have enough money I can speak English to be ...
4
votes
0answers
62 views

Is there a politeness change when replacing です with (っ)す? [duplicate]

I've heard in video games and TV shows some male speakers using す or っす in place of です. For example, instead of "本はどこですか" they say "本はどこすか". Does dropping the で make the sentence any less polite? ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

When using しか, which part do we have to negate?

I want to say "Mathematics is the only thing I trust." using しか. But I am not sure which part I have to negate. Which one is the correct one? A or B? A: 数学しか信頼できるものじゃない。 B: 数学しか信頼でないものだ。
4
votes
2answers
81 views

Difference between てこそ and からこそ

「朝、起きる」という基本中の基本の生活習慣が身に__次の行為へとつながっていくのだ。 I think that both「ついてこそ」and「ついたからこそ」can be fit into the above sentence. However, the textbook gives「ついてこそ」as the right answer and I don't know why.
6
votes
1answer
92 views

How to parse the following sentence containing phrases that look like direct quoted relative clauses?

I cannot parse the following sentence. 自分の知る子供たちは、「無理だと知っていて」夢を語るが、日本の小学生は、「実現できると思って」夢を追う。だから「夢が違う」と言う。 As far as I know, 「」is used for direct quote. For example, 彼が「走ってください」と言いました。He said, "...
7
votes
1answer
260 views

Adding つき to the end of nouns

湯ぶねに体を沈めると、どばーっと色つきのお湯があふれた。 When he sank his body into the bath, the coloured hot water gushed over. I took me a while to figure out that 色つき meant 'coloured'. It isn't in the bi-lingual ...
11
votes
2answers
460 views

Usage of ~を好き outside of embedded clauses

日本語文法の初心者です :D In general, を is not used with 好き because 好き is a na-adjective: 彼は猫が好きです。 — correct 彼は猫を好きです。 — incorrect If this part is "embedded" as a clause, を is also ...
6
votes
1answer
133 views

Expressing a regretful wish

What is a good way to express a wish about something that won't or is unlikely to happen. For example. I wish I were tall enough to be allowed on that roller coaster. I wish I could eat that much ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

Confused in determining the rule of composing ~さえ~ば sentence

Let's consider the following conditional sentence but without "ONLY". ボタンを押せば、ジュースが出る。If you press the button, the juice comes out. When "ONLY" is inserted with さえ, the conditional sentence ...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

Regarding と exhaustive list for comparison

I read this material in a local book which gives too little information so I need help to confirm. The book said that we can use と to compare, and we cannot omit the last と. いちご と すいかと、...
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votes
2answers
116 views

Correct usage of 'you'?

I need a little help with the phrase 'You are...' For simplicity, I'm going to you the example: 'You are helpful.' It's an awkward example, yes, but it's the best I could find. :P Are these correct? ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Usage of 'か' in short sentences

I know that か is the 'question marker particle', and can use it confidently in formal sentences. However, when it comes to casual speech and very short sentences, what is it's usage? For example, if ...
1
vote
3answers
202 views

Why was て omitted in this relative clause?

彼は、外見はともかくとして、性格が良く、信頼できる人だ。 Leaving aside his outward appearance, my elder brother is a trustworthy person with good personality. Question In my understanding, the sentence should be as ...
2
votes
2answers
132 views

How to say “I've never done it” without saying what “it” is

I know how to say "I've never done verb-phrase" using verb-phrase ことがない e.g. ケーキを食べることがない. But how would I say something like "Even though I've wanted to try eating cake, I've never done it" ...
4
votes
1answer
148 views

How can verb て become an adverb?

I found a sentence 医者が「大丈夫ですか」と重ねて尋ねた。 with translation The doctor repeatedly asked "Is it OK?". As far as I know The concatenation of て verb represents several actions which are done ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Meaning of たァ after verb in dictionary form

「入浴剤まで置いてあるたァ、なんだか今日はかあさんの奴、気が利くじゃねぇか。」 Even bath salts have been put out. Somehow, today, mother's (things?) are thoughtful aren't they? I'm reasonably happy with てある: something has been done by ...
5
votes
4answers
134 views

別に in non-negative clause

Context: Grandad was bought food as a gift for looking after Maruko. Maruko apologises to grandad because dad has just eaten it all. Then Grandad says: 「いいんじゃよ、まる子。おじいちゃんは別にただまる子をかわいがっているだけじゃ」 ...
4
votes
2answers
116 views

What is the proper translation for と続いた後で?

xやyなどと続いた後で、zという答えがあった。 Literally it means something like: The answers were x, y followed by z. What is the better translation for this?
6
votes
2answers
647 views

What does との mean in this sentence?

It is very hard to parse the following sentence as I don't know about との grammar. What does との mean and how to parse the following sentence? 自治会から、留学生数人との交流会があるとの連絡を受け、行ってみた。
5
votes
1answer
76 views

How should one interpret ~ていた + だなんて

I came across the following sentence in volume 12 of the manga たいようのいえ and was unsure how to interpret the expression at the end. Could someone please explain how the "だなんて" changes the meaning or ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

What is the purpose of と in this sentence?

I am reading a passage, the first line is as follows. 自治会から、留学生数人との交流会があるとの連絡を受け、行ってみた。 I got a message from student association that there would be a gathering with some exchange students ...
5
votes
2answers
172 views

報復する meaning in this sentence

あんまりにも痛いんで、ムシャクシャして、適当なぬいぐるみを報復したくなった。 包丁で、無抵抗なぬいぐるみを滅多刺し。誰にでもできる惨殺行為、簡単すぎてものすごく無意味【つまらな】い。 それはさぞかし気持ちが悪く、気色が悪く、後味なんか最悪で、つまり今のオレはそのぬいぐるみ役なのだった。 Because it hurt so much, because I got angry, I ...
21
votes
3answers
2k views

What is the meaning of 「読むには読んだ」?

I have the following sentence and I can't find any material pointing out the usage of this grammar. 薦められた本を読むには読んだが、よく理解できなかった。 In general, what is the usage of 「VるにはVた」?
1
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1answer
76 views

How to say “Mathematics has a great impact on technology.”?

I have looked related examples up from the internet and I found some patterns as follows. What I want to say is Mathematics has a great impact (influence) on technology. or Technology is ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Why do we use 楽しめそう and 楽しみ rather than 楽しい・楽しそう in these sentences?

Could someone explain why we use 楽しめそう instead of 楽しそう in the first sentence and what exactly 楽しみ means and why? (The translations are my best guess at what the sentences might mean.) ...
5
votes
1answer
87 views

Must relative clauses attach directly to the noun they are modifying

For example I can write: 日本に行く友達がいる。 I have a friend who is going to Japan But can I write: 日本に行くジョンという友達がいる。 I have a friend, named John, who is going to Japan. Basically, is it ...
4
votes
1answer
77 views

Is 他に essential in ~ほど~ない grammar?

When I learnt ~ほど~ない grammar, I found examples with 他に as follows. For me, the presence of 他に seems to be wasteful because 私ほどハンサムな人はいない。There is none as handsome as I. 私ほどハンサムな人は他にいない。There is no ...