文法. A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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1answer
427 views

Trying to make sense of some JLPT practice questions

Last year's JLPT tests were made available for download recently, and so to gauge my progress and plan what to study I decided to take the N2 test. I'm right at the threshold of passing (58% overall ...
6
votes
1answer
224 views

is ~だ~だ another way of listing things, or does my JLPT book have a typo?

In my JLPT practise book, there is this sentence: 学生{がくせい}時代{じだい}は学費{がくひ}だ合宿{がっしゅく}だとお金{かね}がかかり、就職{しゅうしょく}したらしたで給料{きゅうりょう}だけで生活{せいかつ}できず、親{おや}に頼{たよ}ってしまい申{もう}し訳{わけ}ない。 I'm really just wondering ...
5
votes
1answer
233 views

“決{き}まっている” and “決められている” have the same meaning, right?

I came across this sentence written by a native speaker: (1) "学年{がくねん}ごとに学習{がくしゅう}する漢字{かんじ}が決められています。" To communicate the same meaning, I would have said: (2) "学年ごとに学習する漢字が決まっています。" #1 is passive ...
5
votes
1answer
251 views

Meaning of inversion in questions: 「何ですか、今の音は?」

I often hear questions where a phrase marked with は is moved to the end of the sentence: 今の音は何ですか? 何ですか、今の音は? I heard the second sentence above in the anime となりの関くん. A student has just ...
6
votes
1answer
527 views

Usage (correctness) of だと after verbs

I've noticed だと showing up after verbs for a while now in various forms of media, such as blogs, anime, regular TV shows & also when speaking to Japanese people. However, I was originally told ...
9
votes
2answers
440 views

Likely Sentences (Nuance in use of 〜てもらう vs Passive form)

Our professor gave us some problems where you are suppose to circle which statement the person is more likely to say. Below is an example. おまわりさん よく道を聞かれます。 よく道を聞いてもらいます。 I think this means ...
4
votes
2answers
951 views

What exactly does the grammatical form NがNなだけに mean?

In my JLPT textbook, it has a section explaining the verb form [Noun]が[Noun]なだけに. By way of explanation, it says that this means, "unlike other things, [Noun] is special, so..." I'm having a hard ...
5
votes
1answer
320 views

Ellipsis: does this と=として, what is the relevant verb in this extract?

The following is attributed to フジテレビHP/経済新聞. I wonder if someone could explain the grammar around the と? (I think it might be an "abbreviation" of として but it is very difficult to find an explanation ...
5
votes
2answers
291 views

Use of から vs を with 出て行く?:

Why are we using から and not を in the following sentence?: 出て行く:同居している恋人が家から出て行って、別に住むようになる。 I ask because the normal particle with 出る is を (eg 家を出る) so why do we have から here? My dictionary has ...
4
votes
1answer
452 views

Use of が vs を with transitive verb, 受け入れる(+もらえる)

This is probably fairly basic but, not being a native speaker, I'd like to confirm if my understanding of grammar of the following sentence (from 中上級日本語, Feb'14) is correct and what is natural. In ...
5
votes
1answer
411 views

あなたがこの文のおかしいと思うところは?

The structure strikes me because the underlying transformation seems to be like this: [ あなたが ] [ この文の  ~ところを ] [ おかしいと ] 思う [ あなたが ] [ この文の  _____ ] [ おかしいと ] 思う ところは~ Another similar example is: [...
0
votes
1answer
190 views

whats the difference between し and と?

I thought I knew this but it has just been explained to me in Japanese class and now I am totally confused. I had always thought と was "and" but apparently it more usually means "or"; when you want ...
4
votes
2answers
316 views

meaning of て-form + られない

I assume that 死んでられない is 死んでる in the negative potential form, which means it would mean something like "I can't be dying" or "I can't be dead". Can anyone help me understand this better?
6
votes
2answers
157 views

Modifying adjectives: カンペキ [に or な?] 思ったとおりの仕上がり

I have a question about カンペキに in the following sentence. As far as I can guess it modifies the whole 「思ったとおりの仕上がり」, but grammatically I cannot understand why. Well, 仕上がり is a noun, so wouldn't カンペキな ...
6
votes
2answers
223 views

What´s the (entire) direct object in this sentence?

人の手を刺す        stab someone in the hand. 人の手に短剣を刺す     stab a dagger in someone's hand. What's the direct object in the second sentence? Is it just 短剣 or 人の手に短剣? I ask because in the first sentence ...
4
votes
2answers
183 views

Unusual usage of 勝 (勝たしてくれ?)

I was reading a comic and came across the following usage of 勝 which confused me. この試合でオレを三橋に勝たしてくれ! I know what it means (Help me beat Mihashi in this game), but I'm not sure about how to ...
3
votes
2answers
324 views

Using declarative だ with negative i-adjectives

I am complete beginner and I've got a question that I wish to ask you: When negating an i-adjective (-くない), should we, as in the affirmative form, omit the declarative "だ"? For example, is it "...
8
votes
2answers
270 views

In Okinawan, what is the ン in ウチナーンチュ?

The Okinawan word for "Okinawa" is ウチナー, for "person" is チュ, and for "Okinawan" (person) is ウチナーンチュ. I'd like to know where this ン comes from between the part for "Okinawa" and the part for "person". ...
1
vote
1answer
324 views

推量の助詞、「う」… does this particle exist?

On this site, when asking about でしょう・だろう, as well as ましょう etc, I have been told that it is a combination of the verb's 未然形 and the 推量 particle "う". However, I have never been able to find anything on ...
4
votes
1answer
622 views

The meaning of く

I was browsing fairly random old questions to see if I could learn a few little things ( I could) and stumbled across this one- The topic is the restaurant, or the conversation is at the restaurant? ...
6
votes
1answer
465 views

Am I understanding ご覧になって頂く/送らせて頂く correctly?

Just for a little bit of context: There's a flyer about a Japanese church's beach retreat that's been sent around, and I'm trying to translate it for practice. That being said, the flyer has been ...
1
vote
1answer
334 views

What is the meaning of もらう here?

I know that もらう has the meaning of 'get' or 'receive', but I am confused with it when it is used in the sentence below: 面白いのでたくさんの人に読んでもらいたい How do I understand the auxiliary verb 'もらう' in this ...
2
votes
3answers
206 views

What is the purpose of る in the sentence?

I know the form ている, but is there any other form like just てる without an い between ? This is the sentence that I'm confused with : 写真の右に写ってる小物が気になります。なんやろね?
4
votes
3answers
476 views

How to translate て-form + ろ

In the Japanese exclamation: 待ってろよ! What function does ろ have and how should it be translated to English? I've searched everywhere, but I can't seem to find a decent explanation. The only thing ...
8
votes
2answers
890 views

Is it correct to use adjectives before 限り?

I'm studying for level N2 of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test and have a question about 限り. I find in my book that 限り meaning "as long as" can be preceded by adjectives, but in A Dictionary of ...
5
votes
2answers
529 views

Usage of ばかり in とばかり思って

Can somebody please explain for me the meaning of ばかり in とばかり思って, as far as I can guess through the examples it means something like "そう思ったんだけど、実際に・・・・・・". 僕たちはずっと、彼らは一生安泰だとばかり思っていたんだけど、君の話によると、...
2
votes
1answer
205 views

Superfluous 何か/どれか etc

I saw in my Deathnote manga the sentence, 何か欲しいものはない? I also saw in my game I'm playing in Japanese "これらの絵でどれか気に入るものがありますか". I was wondering, why do どれか and 何か seem superfluous? It seems like they ...
4
votes
2answers
3k views

What's the difference between「~と言いました」and「~と言っていました」?

「~と言{い}いました」and「~と言{い}っていました」 basically the difference between します and しています.
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votes
4answers
1k views

What's the difference between ~てある and ~た (past form)?

As I understand it てある is rather different to ている in that it refers to a resultant state rather than an ongoing action. However I wonder, what then is the practical difference between a resultant ...
2
votes
1answer
195 views

Using を/に+伴う and meaning of 後接させる (+ 現場指示 and 文脈指示)

Here is the sentence (from the 日本語文法ハンドブック : 疑問詞が 「が」 「を」 以外の格助詞を伴う時はその格助詞の後にそのまま 「も」 を後接させます。 My guess : When the interrogatives are accompanied by a case-marking particle other than "が" ...
4
votes
2answers
565 views

Meaning of ~と言えよう

Just as the title says, I'm looking for the meaning of this construction, as it is used in the following sentence: 野菜や果物の害虫を防ぐために、さまざまな農薬が使われているが、これは人間の健康の面から考えると、問題があると言えよう。
1
vote
1answer
459 views

「[壁際]{かべぎわ}の前と同じ場所」とはどういう意味ですか?

壁際の前と同じ場所に彼は立っていた。 これはどういう意味ですか。 太字の部分が理解できません。 お願いいたします。
3
votes
1answer
152 views

Using も in place of を

I'm currently trying to get back into studying Japanese. I want to take the JLPT N3 this summer. To get myself in the mode for this I am first looking at the N4 tests on the JLPT website. The ...
3
votes
2answers
241 views

Particle に (and で) in this sentence

I don't get why に is used in addition to は in the following sentences. 指示詞 に はコソアドで始まる規則的な体系があります。 Concerning the demonstratives, there is a regular system (of words, i guess) that starts by ...
5
votes
1answer
281 views

Meaning of として in this sentence

I don't get why として is used instead of を in this sentence, as it doesn't seem to fit with the "as" sense that I know. 品詞と無関係にコソアドとして一括して扱うのが一般的です。 What I understand is this: Treating コソアド as ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

Difference between 出向させられる & 出向する

Is there any reason to use one tense over the other with this verb (and others like it such as 出動, as in軍隊が出動する)? Based on the following sample sentences from my Apple dictionary, they seem ...
2
votes
3answers
962 views

できる vs ~えます form for “can”, “able to” [duplicate]

A couple of days ago I tried to express "I can ..." where "..." was some some verb or verb phrase. I used the ~て form of the ... verb followed by 出来ます but was told instead to change the form of the .....
3
votes
3answers
284 views

君に話しがある How does this work?

ちょっと君に話しがある I saw this sentence in my downloaded deck of cards. Does it make sense. Why does it feel like "You have a little bit of a story in you". How do you interpret this? What does the に? In ...
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votes
3answers
1k views

Strange usage of に particle

I saw an advertisement on the train that said 世界に友達を作りたい... My Japanese friend said that the difference with "世界で友達を作りたい” is that で means like "In the world" whilst に means "all over the world". I ...
4
votes
1answer
303 views

とか vs. って vs. という vs. と言われている

can someone help me with the following questions: ねえ、このきじみて。きのうのスケート大会、青木選手が___。 a)優勝したとか b)優勝したんだって c)優勝したという Answer is b but I am not sure why a is wrong cause the guide says that 'toka'...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

How is 高めの used and constructed?

example sentence: コレステロールが高めの方の食品 I'd like to know how 高めの is made (verb stem + no?) and how it should be used. I'm guessing the example sentence means "food which heightens your cholesterol". Does 方 ...
5
votes
1answer
527 views

Attributive form in Japanese narration

I have recently started reading novels as a means to improve my Japanese after reaching a comfortable enough level to do so. I am familiar with the use of the non-past form (dictionary form) in ...
4
votes
3answers
484 views

知らない方がいいって事もあるんです

Original video I am trying to decipher: 知らない方がいいって事もあるんです The translation that is provided with this phrase is "Some things are better off left unknown." I'm trying to break this down but I'm ...
10
votes
3answers
607 views

Is ~も really marking the word just prior to it?

I'm translating an excerpt for fun, but this section struck me as odd: 彼女は、口に持っていきかけていたコップを、ゆっくりとテーブルに戻すと、それっきり、放心したように、黙り込んでしまう。微速度撮影でうつした、枯れていく花のように、みるみる両眼が落ちくぼみ、鼻がそげ、あれほどなめらかだった肌の色も、...
2
votes
2answers
576 views

なってきています and なっています

What´s the difference between なってきています and なっています? For example: お隣の人達、大丈夫? ヤバくなってきているよ。 Would it´s meaning change significantly if it´s changed into: お隣の人達、大丈夫? ヤバくなっているよ。
3
votes
3answers
803 views

Using negative verb forms with はず

In the chapter Things that should be a certain way of Tae Kim's guide, the author states that in order to express the expectation of something not happening, one should use something like 「~はずがない」. I ...
5
votes
2answers
382 views

meaning of particle と in ためにと用意した

What is the particle と means in ためにと用意した, and how is it different from ために用意した? 初撃の後の陽動のためにと用意した慧による「姫」の誘拐作戦。 "The strategy of kidnapping the "princess" by/which is done with the help of Kei, is ...
2
votes
1answer
127 views

Grammatical meaning of に-particle in へいわに

I'm aware that the に-particle has a lot of different grammatical meanings. The most common of these are time, place and indirect object. But I came across the following sentence and I can't really ...
6
votes
1answer
286 views

When is と added to onomatopoeia?

While at first I believed it was simply bound to each individual word, I've noticed that the same onomatopoeic word sometimes has と after it and sometimes it doesn't. Here's a case I stumbled upon: ...
3
votes
1answer
517 views

How to analyze それが元で?

I understand the meaning of this phrase, but I have a hard time understanding how it's constructed. In phrases like それで or というわけで you have a noun plus the particle で. This looks superficially similar,...