文法. A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
3answers
179 views

What is the purpose of 「し」 in phrase 「私は緊{きん}張{ちょう}しすぎて」?

There is a phrase 「私は緊{きん}張{ちょう}しすぎて」. Translates as: 私は - I緊張 - nervousすぎて - too; exceedingly But what is the purpose of 「し」 after 「緊張」?
17
votes
1answer
6k views

So-called の-adjectives - how does の *really* work?

Ok, so there seems to be some controversy over whether we can really say that there are 'の-adjectives', or whether we simply use a noun in an "attributive" way (a term which I don't actually really ...
2
votes
2answers
371 views

What are words which stand at the very end of a sentence (like “yo” and “tomo”) called?

As far as I know, "yo" at the end of a sentence indicates that quite new information is contained in the sentence, "tomo" ascertains that the content expressed in the sentence is definitely true. Both ...
3
votes
1answer
185 views

In “[Vます stem] + し+ [noun]” what does し mean? [duplicate]

I've seen this in multiple combinations, but the one I was specifically looking at was: 「背負いし者」 ...from 「宿命を背負いし者」. Similarly, 「かつて来たりし者」 Scouring through all my grammar books, I can't ...
4
votes
3answers
262 views

Reason for 「のか」 and 「かもしれません」 in 「何を言っているのかわからないかもしれませんけど」

One time I was formulating sentences on a website, to practice my Japanese and get natives to correct them. I had written 「何が言ってわかりませんけど」 which I now understand was wrong, but when they corrected my ...
7
votes
2answers
478 views

Is 〜ている really this subtle?

With an action verb, like 食べる, I can count 5 meanings of this sentence: ジョンは納豆を食べている "John is eating natto." (progressive) "John is eating the natto." (progressive) "John eats natto." (...
6
votes
2answers
209 views

What is 「たもうた」 in 「 神の創りたもうた世界」?

I'd like to know what is the suffix たもうた used in the example phrase 「 神の創りたもうた世界」. I've found several more occurrences of it and it seem to work like some honorific equivalent of くださる used in ...
1
vote
1answer
384 views

particle に uses

I'm having difficulties in understand some of the uses of "ni" particle. If someone can help me explaining what is the function of the particle(like its representing movement, indicating location or ...
3
votes
1answer
279 views

Usage of「次第に」with the past tense

I am confused as if I should put the verb preceding 「次第に」 at the past tense or just use the dictionary version: ランチを食べた次第に帰った Or ランチを食べる次第に帰った Also, if this grammar is not appropriate in ...
1
vote
1answer
263 views

Does the particle に in に作られた mark the agent or the location here?

I'm confused about 「に作られた」 in the following sentence. Kindly explain this part to me. 「Central Base」とは、旧「アクアポリス・中央エアポート」に作られた、「ASDF」の陸上(?)基地のことだ。 Some sort of translation: Central base is, ...
0
votes
1answer
175 views

Meaning of 「緊張しながら」 and grammar of 「〜しながら」 part

Could you explain more precisely the meaning and grammar of 「緊張しながら」? I know that 「緊張」 means "nervous" or "tension", but 「〜しながら」 - I can't understand this part.
0
votes
1answer
387 views

example usage of ~kiri

It seems that one of the uses of ~kiri is to show continuance of state/condition. is it similar to '~ta mama' then? However,i have not been able to find an example of this usage. Appreciate help.
2
votes
1answer
242 views

When should I use a verb stem by itself?

I was recently listening to the Hunter x Hunter anime, and during a conversation, a passing character that the protagonist meets states, 頑張って、いいハンターになりな This struck me as a bit odd, as I ...
2
votes
1answer
330 views

Difference between 「受{う}ける」 and 「もらう」

What is the difference between 「受{う}ける」 and 「もらう」? Both translates as "receive"..
2
votes
3answers
263 views

Understanding the meaning and grammar of 出{で}て in 出{で}て来{き}ました

I'm trying to understand the grammar of 「出{で}て」 in 「出{で}て来{き}ました」. Why is 「て」 used here?
-2
votes
1answer
511 views

expressing 'among' in japanese

Sports (de ha/ni ha)soccer ga ichiban suki desu. Which one is correct? What is either of them used to express?
8
votes
1answer
385 views

What's the grammar of 持ちつ持たれつ?

持ちつ持たれつ (meaning approximately "supporting eachother") is commonly heard, but seems to be formed from some archaic grammar. I'm assuming it's an archaic form of 持って持たれて or something like that, but ...
-1
votes
1answer
88 views

Expressing concurrency

人口が増える [ に伴い/とともに ] 周辺もにぎやかになってきた。 Jinkou ga fueru (ni tomonai/to tomo ni) shuuhen mo nigiyaka ni natte kita Both the options seem grammatically correct. What's the difference then? Or do I ...
1
vote
1answer
534 views

Expressing 'if so'

暇(なら・としたら)ちょっと手伝って下さい。 Hima (nara/toshitara) chotto tetsudatte kudasai. Both the options seem grammatically correct. Is it not so?
2
votes
2answers
4k views

Explaining the phrase お世{せ}話{わ}になります and お世{せ}話{わ}になりました

I can understand what the phrase means 「お世{せ}話{わ}になりました」- "Thank you for everything". But literally it's quite strange to me. Could you explain the logic of it? Also would be very nice to know more ...
4
votes
1answer
161 views

「慎重すぎる」 and 「慎重に過ぎる」 - is there a difference?

In the short story I'm reading now (「ドライブ・マイ・カー」 by Haruki Murakami) there are two very similar phrases to express what I would translate as "too cautious": 「慎重すぎる」 and 「慎重に過ぎる」: いささか乱暴すぎるか、...
1
vote
2answers
373 views

Difference between 「なるベく」 and 「なるべき」

My Japanese coworker has been unable to explain clearly this. I know that the difference comes up naturally but as someone learning Japanese I need a few examples and grammar rules to know which one ...
5
votes
1answer
543 views

Meaning and grammar of やるっきゃない

I few minutes ago on NHK news 「注目」 I've heard/saw the phrase 「やるっきゃない」. I have no idea what it means.. And what grammar rules are here?
14
votes
2answers
525 views

What's the difference between くる and やってくる?

Can someone explain the nuance between them? They both mean "come", but I'm unsure of when they are interchangeable. My perception is that やってくる seems to put more emphasis on the actual action of ...
3
votes
2answers
359 views

Difference between usage of ように and ようにして

包み込むようにして、彼を抱きしめる 包み込むように   彼を抱きしめる The example could either use ようにして or 包み込むように抱きしめる(albeit written differently). What is the difference between these two usages? Can anyone explain the usage ...
3
votes
1answer
134 views

Explanation of 歌にのせて

From JapanesePod101, with their translation: ミュージカルは、歌【うた】にのせて物語【ものがたり】を展開【てんかい】する。 A musical can tell a story with songs. I understand that のせる means (amongst other things) "to take on board". Does ...
3
votes
1answer
201 views

How does one analyze “N + を前に + V”, where N is not an object of V

Note: This contains 3 parts but I think they are about 3 aspects of the same construct, hence I'm asking all 3 here instead of splitting into 3 questions. I guess this construct is quite common in ...
1
vote
1answer
130 views

N + sou desu is acceptable

kono kami ha yuki sou da - is this correct? I know that rashii and mitai can be used ~ but that's beside the point. Also,if 'sou da' can be used with 'N' - how do we differentiate 'seems like' ...
0
votes
1answer
141 views

Meaning of 具体的に [duplicate]

What is the meaning of 具体的に? Usage of particle に in this context is not very clear to me.
0
votes
2answers
226 views

How is て行く being used in すすんで行く and さいて行く? [duplicate]

I came across すすんで行く and さいて行く in a vocabulary list, and it was immediately obvious that there was probably some sort of grammatical construct involving て行く that was in use here. I don't really know ...
1
vote
2answers
233 views

What word and form is うってる?

I'm reading a children's book (no kanji) and the sentence is: いどうはんばいしゃは、 みんなが だいすきな たべものを うってるよ。 From the context, I figure it means: The mobile catering guy everyones favourite food ...
1
vote
1answer
204 views

Repeating subject for emphasis okay?

For example I find myself saying things like: What did you win, bro? I could leave out the "bro" and the sentence would be complete but I unconsciously add emphasis with the subject again ...
9
votes
3answers
696 views

に and で revisited

Consider the statement A: ホテル(に/で)泊まる. For both cases would translate to "I stay at a hotel" in English. However they are answers to different questions. Consider the questions 1.どこに泊まる and 2.(ホテルで)...
14
votes
1answer
495 views

Two を in a single sentence - how to understand it?

In the book I'm reading (「キッチン」 by 吉本{よしもと}ばなな) I have found the following sentence: うしろで雄一がぞうきんを手に床をふいてくれていた。 I guess it can be translated to something like (sorry for a quite literal ...
6
votes
2answers
219 views

「どちら様でしたか?」 - why past form?

In a novel I'm reading (「キッチン」 by 吉本{よしもと}ばなな), there's this situation where the door opens and a woman enters the room asking for the main character by name. The main character, being surprised and ...
3
votes
1answer
269 views

Trouble understanding grammar in 「名を、柊という。」

In the novel I'm reading now (「キッチン」 by 吉本{よしもと}ばなな), there's this section where the protagonist is talking about her boyfriend's brother for the first time, introducing him to readers and giving his ...
2
votes
1answer
198 views

Usage of ていく in 死んでいく

世の中結局強い物が勝つ。 弱い奴らは死んでいく。 ただそれだけ 弱い奴らは勝手に死んでいくのだ Maybe a better way of phrasing this question would be asking the difference in using merely plain form and this form. e.g. ...
2
votes
1answer
391 views

Need help with the meaning of this sentence (usage of ようとしている)

あいつは自分の嫁が決まってから、この呪縛を解除して自分の子供を産ませようとしてるんだ When this kind of construction (ようとする)is used with things like てから or simple te form before it does it then mean that this applies to all of them or only ...
9
votes
2answers
271 views

Looking for an explanation of the usage "あったものじゃない”

I'm looking for an explanation of the usage "あったものじゃない”. 例文 1)ムードも何もあったものじゃありませんね (context:Girlfriend and boyfriend were out on a date and the boyfriend's stomach made a large noise because he ...
4
votes
1answer
286 views

How are these two sentences not negating their premise?

In my JLPT textbook, 日本語総まとめN1読解, on page17, there are these two sentences (which are both part of a larger paragraph, but I hope I have included enough): 自分{じぶん}なんかにできるわけがないとあきらめる態度{たいど}...
5
votes
1answer
328 views

If writing in である form, when is it necessary to use だ?

I know that the である style of writing is used as a somewhat-formal stylistic choice, often in editorials, and in rare cases, in particular styles of speeches. I remember being taught at some point, ...
1
vote
2answers
773 views

Some questions regarding ~てくる (edited)

Up to now my understanding of ~てくる has been very vague. No matter how many explanations I read, in practice my translations always feel uneasy. Here are a few unresolved doubts I have: From what I ...
4
votes
2answers
523 views

Asking a negative question

I've heard that it is supposed to be "less demanding" (or something in that regard) to ask a negative question when you're asking for a favor or anything alike. Let's say I want to turn this sentence ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Classical: On the subject of a sentence with 連用形/て clauses + ば condicional

I'm having some trouble with this beautiful passage from the Kana Preface to the Kokinshū, which is talking about us (spaced for clarity):  1 人まろ なくなりにたれど、  2 うたの こと ゝどまれるかな。  3. たとひ とき うつり こと ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Verb used for “being in a class”

I'm new to Japanese language. I was looking for a way to ask "what class are you in?" or similar (not sure if that's the right way to translate it to Japanese, but the idea is to ask him what class is ...
9
votes
1answer
697 views

What is the difference between 〜を〜とする and 〜を〜とした before nouns?

In everything I can find online, the constructions [N1]を[N2]とする[N3] and [N1]を[N2]とした[N3] are lumped together as basically having the same meaning. Is there any difference between them? My textbook ...
7
votes
3answers
491 views

AはB emphasizing B, rather than A

There are quite a few comments on another question discussing the sentence 彼が持っているのは二百円です, in which the emphasis apparently falls on 二百円. I posted a comment asking if this could be explained as the ...
3
votes
2answers
362 views

Is は used when asking if something already discussed exists?

If I've talked about a thing before, and want to ask whether or not it exists in another place (or time), would I use "は"? For example, if I said "In Sydney, I saw a ryokan. Are there ryokans in ...
2
votes
2answers
123 views

Use of おく and 方 in this sentence

このたなの一番おくの方にございます。 They are at the far end of this shelf. This is an example sentence from one of my textbooks but I don't understand what おく means and I'm a bit confused on the use of 方 as well, ...
5
votes
1answer
430 views

How is あって being used in this context?

こんばんは。I am new to learning Japanese and this website. I usually try to learn things of my own initiative, by searching up specific things I don't understand and trying to make sense of them myself. ...