A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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7
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1answer
289 views

When do we use 〜どおりに instead of 〜のとおりに after nouns?

I noticed that in the case of nouns, we can use either of these: Nのとおりに Nどおりに But this seems to be case-specific. When or in which circumstances do we use the latter?
4
votes
2answers
284 views

What is the difference between ことにする and ことにした?

みんなの日本語 中級I - Lesson 3 says that V (dictionary form) ことにする is used to express the decision to do something. If I say 私は日本へ行くことにしました。 this can be translated as “I decided to go to Japan”. This is ...
0
votes
1answer
86 views

To which part of speech belong 〜とはいえ and 〜というものの, and as what part of sentence are they usually used?

I came across 〜とはいえ and 〜というものの. They seem to be fixed expressions but I am not quite sure which part of speech they can be re-analysed as.
0
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1answer
116 views

What is the function of ちょうだい in 読んでちょうだい?

What is the function of ちょうだい after 読んで? I am not quite sure, but I think I saw this subsidiary verb a couple of times in this fixed form and never in another conjugation.
4
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3answers
1k views

I don't understand what のも means in this sentence

Here's the sentence in question: 生まれたのも育ったのも京都なんですよ I thought using の in a sentence signified possession (ie. 私の本 [My book]). If I interpret the sentence as such, it doesn't make any sense. ...
3
votes
4answers
417 views

What is the meaning of 座っておいで?

The おいで after the Te-form seems to convey a kind of command. Could you explain the usages of this word, what part of speech is it and how it differs from the other kinds of commands?
4
votes
1answer
231 views

Should there be a に instead of を after クラスメイト in「それをクラスメイトを見られて以降」?

In the following sentence is it correct to put the second を here? それをクラスメイトを見られて以降 Maybe it should be に? And if it's correct, how can we translate this part? Here's the paragraph where the ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

Are な and だ both copula verbs?

What is the grammatical relationship between these two words? Are they just different words expressing the same concept, is one the derivation of the other or is a third option true?
8
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2answers
224 views

に vs で: 映画に見る vs 映画で見る

Branching off from the comments to this question: Do I say えいがにみました or えいがをみました ?: Preamble: The comment says 映画に見た is valid for "I saw it in a movie". I went to search for example sentences and ...
4
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1answer
130 views

Does ところを always mean the same thing as のに? What is the difference between ところへ and ところに?

One of my JLPT books, 総まとめ文法N2, uses the following examples to "explain" the grammar pattern ところだ: お忙{いそが}しいところをすみません。(=忙{いそが}しいのに) → I am sorry to bother you at this busy time. ...
4
votes
2answers
179 views

Particles following ところ (に, を, and で)

料理をしているところに電話がかかってきて困った。 デートをしているところを友だちに見られてしまった。 電車に乗ったところで今日は祝日だと気づいた。 In the above sentences, what decide the particle following ところ? They all seem to indicate a happening ...
0
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1answer
132 views

What is a subsidiary verb?

What is a subsidiary verb? Could one explain it and give some examples of its application?
9
votes
1answer
902 views

Aren't がる and たがる the same thing?

In my JLPT practise book, it has two different entries, one to explain がる and one to explaining たがる. It offeres these example sentences to differentiate them: うちの子{こ}は新{あたら}しいものを見{み}ると、すぐほしがる。 ...
7
votes
3answers
405 views

けれども as a neutral connector

In this thread on appositives, @OskarLindberg had mentioned that けれども could be used as a neutral connector. My understanding up until now was that it presented contrasting ideas, being translated as ...
3
votes
2answers
187 views

Verb + うる form. What is this?

Can't really understand this form: I've seen already this form with 考える and translated it like this: 考えうることだ - conceivable (possible) However how do you translate with other verbs? is this ...
1
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1answer
94 views

Do I say えいがにみました or えいがをみました ?

Do I say えいがにみました or えいがをみました? Thank you :D
3
votes
2answers
233 views

Usage of particles で and に with ~的

A sentence from JapanesePod 101: 北米とヨーロッパでは通常スカートは女性がはくものと思われているが、世界的には多くの男性がスカートをはく。 In North America and Europe a skirt is thought of as something a woman wears, but in many countries men ...
2
votes
2answers
146 views

Particles に, で for temporal vs spatial location

What does it mean to put で after a temporal expression? I was taught that only に should be used for times but I still see sentences with で sometimes. This is basically my current understanding: ...
3
votes
1answer
254 views

Is に okay in 「田中さんはビデオゲームに遊んでいます」?

I have a question with the follow sentence: 田中さんはビデオゲームに遊んでいます Is the particle に okay?
0
votes
1answer
130 views

technical term for “形容動詞{けいようどうし} + にする”?

A subset of Japanese nouns is the サ変名詞{へんめいし} nouns such as: 勉強{べんきょう}する 運転{うんてん}する 残業{ざんぎょう}する A subset of 形容動詞 words can be appended with "にする" such as: 静{しず}かにする 大切{たいせつ}にする ...
6
votes
2answers
305 views

How to express appositives in Japanese

I have been searching high and low for how to express appositives in Japanese, yet the most I have come across is how to express something like "my friend John". I would like to know how to express ...
0
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0answers
89 views

which verbs have irregular forms? [duplicate]

i know so far: irregular verbs: kuru, suru, aru
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vote
2answers
147 views

Are ここ, そこ and あそこ prepositions?

これ, それ and あれ are demonstrative pronouns. この, その and あの are demonstrative determiners. What could you call ここ, そこ and あそこ? Are they prepositions?
0
votes
1answer
102 views

Understanding the usage of つくin 体{からだ}につけたまま

体{からだ}につけたまま使うことができる..... Please help me understand this form/usage of つく. Since I don't know which kanji it corresponds to, it is difficult for me to make out what this phrase actually means. ...
0
votes
1answer
116 views

V(さ)せる when it doesn't indicate permission/compulsion

さくら は あたたかく なって きた ことを しらせる ように さきます あき の おわり から はな を さかせ はじめ...... The above sentences use the V(さ)せる forms - though they do not indicate permission/compulsion. Could someone help ...
0
votes
1answer
124 views

Is the 仮定形 used only to make the conditional?

toru --aEiou--> tore --joshi--> toreba. Is the ba-joshi the only suffix that can be added to the kateikei form of the verb?
1
vote
1answer
78 views

are the godan verbs always followed by either a,e,i,o or u before a further suffix is added? [duplicate]

as far as i know, in japanese verbs are divided into two groups. One ends in a consonant and one in a vowel. tor : stemform of toru. mi : stemform of miru. those ending in a consonant are called ...
3
votes
3answers
152 views

Sentence structure: “I can accomplish (a) by doing (b)”

I'm trying to say sentences like "I can accomplish (a) by doing (b)." in Japanese, and I can't seem to figure it out. An example sentence would be "I can earn good grades by studying hard." Maybe ...
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vote
2answers
206 views

Are verbs transformed into the ず-form used like adverbs?

Dictionary form: お礼{れい}をする Transformed into ず-form: お礼をせず Is お礼をせず used similar to the English expression "without thanking" which itself can work as an adverb, e.g. I ate without thanking ...
4
votes
1answer
183 views

What is the etymology of the て-form?

What are the origins of the て-form? Was its meaning when it initially appeared different from what it is now?
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Meaning of 楽に済ませようとする

How should I translate this phrase? 楽に済ませようとする。 My literal translation is, "Decide to cause to finish/complete having fun," but that doesn't seem to make much sense. Does 楽に済む mean to enjoy ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

〜み and 〜さ suffix with adjectives [duplicate]

I have seen adjectives in both the following forms: あつみ vs あつさ しんせんみ vs しんせんさ What do these forms indicate and how do they differ? I know that the 〜さ suffix is to convert the
10
votes
1answer
915 views

ないで vs なくて: combining phrases with negative verbs

Can you use 〜なくて instead of 〜ないで in the following sentence without changing the meaning? 病気になると、一切化学薬品や抗生物質を使わないで、鍼や指圧や漢方薬で直します。風邪の時は何もしないで暖かくして、寝ているだけです。 In general, what's the difference ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

was the plain negative of aru once or in a certain dialect aranai?

the plain negative of aru is irregular: NOT: aru --> ara (mizenkei) --> ara+nai BUT: aru --> nai
0
votes
1answer
98 views

What is the difference between asu and ashita? [duplicate]

I've seen asu and ashita both used as furigana for the same kanji (明日). Is there a big, subtle or no difference in meaning and usage?
2
votes
2answers
122 views

Usage of wake desu

いま しごとを かたづけて しまえば あすは らくが できる **というわけ** です わけです is used to state the reason of an incident. However,in this case it seems to be different. Can someone help clarifying the above use of というわけ? ...
7
votes
3answers
188 views

What is the difference between “verb+て+みる” and “verb+(よ)う+とする”?

In Japanese there are words which mean "to try something or attempt at doing something", e.g. 試す, 試みる and つとめる. However, at the same time we also have two grammatical constructions "verb+て+みる" and ...
5
votes
1answer
108 views

What does 滅多に modify in these sentences?

I have a question about the usage of 滅多に. As far as I know, when it's followed by negation it means 'rarely'. For example - めったにたばこを吸わない。 I rarely smoke. However I'm not sure if I'm ...
14
votes
1answer
402 views

What does 窓という窓 mean?

What does 窓という窓 mean? I found it in this sentence in Harry Potter: 木の扉に寄りかかってホグワーツを見上げると、窓という窓が夕日に照らされて赤くキラキラ輝いている。
0
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3answers
150 views

What is the purpose of 「し」 in phrase 「私は緊{きん}張{ちょう}しすぎて」?

There is a phrase 「私は緊{きん}張{ちょう}しすぎて」. Translates as: 私は - I緊張 - nervousすぎて - too; exceedingly But what is the purpose of 「し」 after 「緊張」?
12
votes
1answer
3k views

So-called の-adjectives - how does の *really* work?

Ok, so there seems to be some controversy over whether we can really say that there are 'の-adjectives', or whether we simply use a noun in an "attributive" way (a term which I don't actually really ...
2
votes
2answers
299 views

What are words which stand at the very end of a sentence (like “yo” and “tomo”) called?

As far as I know, "yo" at the end of a sentence indicates that quite new information is contained in the sentence, "tomo" ascertains that the content expressed in the sentence is definitely true. Both ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

In “[Vます stem] + し+ [noun]” what does し mean? [duplicate]

I've seen this in multiple combinations, but the one I was specifically looking at was: 「背負いし者」 ...from 「宿命を背負いし者」. Similarly, 「かつて来たりし者」 Scouring through all my grammar books, I can't ...
0
votes
1answer
99 views

What is the meaning and application of ren'youkei?

My knowledge about ren'youkei is limited to "tabe is the ren'youkei of taberu". I would like to know what the meaning of ren'youkei is, what linguistic idea lies behind this term and for what it is ...
3
votes
3answers
113 views

Reason for 「のか」 and 「かもしれません」 in 「何を言っているのかわからないかもしれませんけど」

One time I was formulating sentences on a website, to practice my Japanese and get natives to correct them. I had written 「何が言ってわかりませんけど」 which I now understand was wrong, but when they corrected my ...
5
votes
2answers
404 views

Is 〜ている really this subtle?

With an action verb, like 食べる, I can count 5 meanings of this sentence: ジョンは納豆を食べている "John is eating natto." (progressive) "John is eating the natto." (progressive) "John eats natto." ...
6
votes
2answers
156 views

What is 「たもうた」 in 「 神の創りたもうた世界」?

I'd like to know what is the suffix たもうた used in the example phrase 「 神の創りたもうた世界」. I've found several more occurrences of it and it seem to work like some honorific equivalent of くださる used in ...
1
vote
1answer
202 views

particle に uses

I'm having difficulties in understand some of the uses of "ni" particle. If someone can help me explaining what is the function of the particle(like its representing movement, indicating location or ...
3
votes
1answer
135 views

Usage of「次第に」with the past tense

I am confused as if I should put the verb preceding 「次第に」 at the past tense or just use the dictionary version: ランチを食べた次第に帰った Or ランチを食べる次第に帰った Also, if this grammar is not appropriate in ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Is スポーツ a plural-only word?

Typically there is no pluralization in Japanese unless specified. For example: この車【くるま】は綺麗【きれい】。 This car is clean. / These cars are clean. Does スポーツ work in the same way? Considering the ...