A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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3
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2answers
127 views

Translation help with this sentence? 何人も触れること能わぬ- everyone or no one?

何【なん】人【びと】も触れる【ふれる】こと能わぬ【あたわぬ】才媛【さいえん】 I'm having trouble with this sentence. I'm just confused as to whether '能わぬ' counts as a negative verb that affects 何人も or not. Since I know 何人も means ...
10
votes
3answers
526 views

How do I say “He already went to do X for me”, implying he is still in the process of X, not finished?

The other day at some festival a few japanese friends asked me something to the effect of アイスを買ってくるけど、行く? But I had already asked a friend, who had not yet returned, to get some for me. So I said ...
2
votes
1answer
119 views

買う, durative or instantaneous?

I'm at the point in my textbook where it explains the use of -ている and the three kind of verbs related to its use: stative, durative, instantaneous. The book says I should ask myself if saying ...
2
votes
1answer
70 views

What function does で have in the sentence 馬は動物である? [duplicate]

I have a denshijisho, always giving me helpful expressions attached to a kanji/word etc. and this time it was 馬は動物である。 A horse is an animal. in which I don't understand the function of the ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

使ってみなさい, and 使っても意味のない場所

After a brief hiatus I'm getting back into my Japanese study. I've hit a roadblock straight away ;-) I am having trouble with the use of '使ってみなさい' here. I don't think I've seen it before. -なさい means ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

What is the significance of の in 「鳥の詩」?

I've seen it used in many places, and sometimes it feels like a connection between words. For example in 「鳥の詩」 (tori no uta), it looks as if the の is connecting 鳥 (tori) and 詩 (uta), and I would like ...
1
vote
1answer
176 views

What is “うち” in “ごろうち”?

I recently came across this sentence: たかしは7時ごろうちに帰りました。 I do understand that it probably means たかし came home at around 7, but from what I learnt to say "around 7" it's: 7時ごろ. So it has no ...
1
vote
4answers
147 views

たの at the end of 「そんなに寝ぼけるまで熟睡してたの?」

Could you help me with this sentence (it's from Attack on Titan) そんなに寝ぼけるまで熟睡【じゅくすい】してたの? そんな refers to the muttering he did earlier まで probably doesn't mean "until", but rather "even" So ...
4
votes
1answer
255 views

Difference between 生まれてくる and 生まれる

What is the difference between 生まれてくる and 生まれる? I looked up くる in 大辞林 and found the following: ある事態が出現し,またある現象が現れる意を表す。 「生まれてくる子供のために」 「なくした本が出てきた」 But this still doesn't help me understand ...
3
votes
4answers
503 views

What's the difference between ~てある and ~た (past form)?

As I understand it てある is rather different to ている in that it refers to a resultant state rather than an ongoing action. However I wonder, what then is the practical difference between a resultant ...
15
votes
2answers
565 views

“太ってる猫” vs “太った猫”

I saw this sentence and its translation in a textbook 彼女は太った猫が好きじゃない。 She doesn't like fat cats I was under the impression that 「太ってる猫」 means something like “cat that is in the state of ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

What are the general principles of using verbs to modify nouns (e.g. 焦げるトースト/焦げたトースト)?

In all the time I've studied the language, I've never heard or seen anybody even hint at whether the principles from a given language (like using “burnt toast” vs. “burning toast”) carry over, or if ...
1
vote
1answer
250 views

What does ~とか mean when it doesn't indicate an example?

事故【じこ】があったとかで電車【でんしゃ】が止まり【とまり】…… Here とか does not seem to indicate an 'example'. Do I understand it correctly? What does this form of とか represent?
3
votes
1answer
144 views

Purpose of ~とは in 「あなたにとって仕事とはなんでしょうか」

あなたにとって仕事【しごと】とはなんでしょうか What is the purpose of とは above? Would using は alone have been any different? If とは is a grammatical construct, I would appreciate additional examples clarifying its ...
-1
votes
1answer
94 views

What's the function of ~には in 「おやには長生きしてもらいたいとおもう」?

おやには長生きしてもらいたいとおもう Please help understand the には construct. Is it a form of emphasis?
2
votes
1answer
113 views

Difference between ~に伴う【ともなう】 and ~を伴う【ともなう】 [duplicate]

このしごとはきけんを伴う I am aware of the にともなう construct. Is this any different? When would ともなう take the を particle rather than に?
1
vote
2answers
177 views

expressing 'not possible that' [duplicate]

kono team ga makeru (hazu ga nai / wake ga nai). Which one is correct? How do we differentiate the use of the above?
25
votes
3answers
37k views

でも (demo) versus けど (kedo) to mean “but”

I learned that you can use でも (demo) at the beginning of a sentence to mean "but," and that you can use けど (kedo) at the end of a sentence to mean "though." However, I don't see a difference between ...
4
votes
0answers
79 views

Grammar in the 古事記 : ~ようもない

I recently started studying the 古事記. In the beginning of the modern translation, there is a piece of grammar which, while not terribly confusing in itself, still fascinates me. The whole sentence is ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Understanding use of における

明治【めいじ】時代【じだい】における学校【がっこう】教育【きょういく】について Please help understand the use of ~における. Is it a form of において? Why wouldn't it be a past form then?
1
vote
1answer
76 views

expressing ~should do

じょうず に なりたければ もっと れんしゅう する [こと/べき/もの] だ As per my understanding, all the 3 options seem appropriate above. Is that correct? If so, are there any quirks or exceptions?
0
votes
1answer
81 views

~ようと… Japanese grammar

お百姓と、その息子を殺したヘビ  ヘビがお百姓(ひゃくしょう)の息子の方へはい寄って来て、噛み殺してしまいました。  お父さんのお百姓は、悲しくてたまりません。  それでオノを持ち、ヘビの穴のそばでヘビが出てきたらすぐに叩き殺そうと待ち構えていました。  そのうちにヘビが一匹、穴から出てきました。  お百姓は、 「それっ!」 と、オノを振り下ろしました。  ...
3
votes
1answer
299 views

に Particle ambiguity

あまりにも子供じみた言動に呆れる。 だが、こういった[A]の対応には少なからず救われている部分があった. 深く踏みこまずに居場所を与えてくれるこの距離感に、周囲の人間も惹かれて集まってくるのだろう。 I'm tripped up on the second sentence. Is the 部分 part of the childish behavior, or the ...
1
vote
3answers
247 views

What's the difference between でしょうか and ですか at the end of a question?

I am having a little trouble understanding the nuance of でしょうか in comparison to ですか. People say it makes it more hesitant and polite, but that doesn't explain the nuance enough for me. Why would you ...
2
votes
2answers
260 views

What does 相手 mean in 「素直な自分をぶつけられる相手」?

I'm confused about how to describe 相手 here. I don't know if it's “partner who can show their true self” or “partner to whom can show your true self”. Also, is the ぶつけられる here like ぶつけることができる? ...
0
votes
0answers
100 views

About the literal translation of a phrase [duplicate]

The phrase it's this: "士郎の理想、英雄となった姿があなたではないのですか。" I understand it literally as "The ideal of Shirou, the figure that became a hero, are you not you?" It's right?
1
vote
1answer
314 views

Can だ be used as a particle in a phrase?

I'd like to say “Tomorrow is Monday”. Is it correct for me to say 「あしただげつようび」? Or is there simply no particle at all?
-1
votes
1answer
54 views

How is “if one does not differ” translated using the word 異なる and the ば-ending?

異なる is the dictionary form. To express the idea of condition, one has to change the u into an e and add the suffix ba. 異なれば = If one differs. How do you express the idea of a negative condition -> ...
6
votes
1answer
136 views

How would a name be used as a non-restrictive appositive?

These other apposition-with-name variants are readily apparent to me: Name as appositive genitive 富士の山 = the mountain of Fuji Name modified by non-restrictive appositive 私の友人のAさん = A-san, ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Help me understand the grammar of this sentence: ~のこと~のこと、~なってもらえたかな

The Sentence: Recently, I've been trying to broaden my understanding of Japanese by stumbling through translating some blog posts. I came across this sentence: 見に来てくださった方、 チームAのことも、私のことも、 ...
7
votes
1answer
279 views

When do we use 〜どおりに instead of 〜のとおりに after nouns?

I noticed that in the case of nouns, we can use either of these: Nのとおりに Nどおりに But this seems to be case-specific. When or in which circumstances do we use the latter?
4
votes
2answers
271 views

What is the difference between ことにする and ことにした?

みんなの日本語 中級I - Lesson 3 says that V (dictionary form) ことにする is used to express the decision to do something. If I say 私は日本へ行くことにしました。 this can be translated as “I decided to go to Japan”. This is ...
0
votes
1answer
86 views

To which part of speech belong 〜とはいえ and 〜というものの, and as what part of sentence are they usually used?

I came across 〜とはいえ and 〜というものの. They seem to be fixed expressions but I am not quite sure which part of speech they can be re-analysed as.
0
votes
1answer
112 views

What is the function of ちょうだい in 読んでちょうだい?

What is the function of ちょうだい after 読んで? I am not quite sure, but I think I saw this subsidiary verb a couple of times in this fixed form and never in another conjugation.
4
votes
3answers
1k views

I don't understand what のも means in this sentence

Here's the sentence in question: 生まれたのも育ったのも京都なんですよ I thought using の in a sentence signified possession (ie. 私の本 [My book]). If I interpret the sentence as such, it doesn't make any sense. ...
3
votes
4answers
407 views

What is the meaning of 座っておいで?

The おいで after the Te-form seems to convey a kind of command. Could you explain the usages of this word, what part of speech is it and how it differs from the other kinds of commands?
4
votes
1answer
231 views

Should there be a に instead of を after クラスメイト in「それをクラスメイトを見られて以降」?

In the following sentence is it correct to put the second を here? それをクラスメイトを見られて以降 Maybe it should be に? And if it's correct, how can we translate this part? Here's the paragraph where the ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Are な and だ both copula verbs?

What is the grammatical relationship between these two words? Are they just different words expressing the same concept, is one the derivation of the other or is a third option true?
8
votes
2answers
218 views

に vs で: 映画に見る vs 映画で見る

Branching off from the comments to this question: Do I say えいがにみました or えいがをみました ?: Preamble: The comment says 映画に見た is valid for "I saw it in a movie". I went to search for example sentences and ...
4
votes
1answer
118 views

Does ところを always mean the same thing as のに? What is the difference between ところへ and ところに?

One of my JLPT books, 総まとめ文法N2, uses the following examples to "explain" the grammar pattern ところだ: お忙{いそが}しいところをすみません。(=忙{いそが}しいのに) → I am sorry to bother you at this busy time. ...
4
votes
2answers
172 views

Particles following ところ (に, を, and で)

料理をしているところに電話がかかってきて困った。 デートをしているところを友だちに見られてしまった。 電車に乗ったところで今日は祝日だと気づいた。 In the above sentences, what decide the particle following ところ? They all seem to indicate a happening ...
0
votes
1answer
128 views

What is a subsidiary verb?

What is a subsidiary verb? Could one explain it and give some examples of its application?
9
votes
1answer
863 views

Aren't がる and たがる the same thing?

In my JLPT practise book, it has two different entries, one to explain がる and one to explaining たがる. It offeres these example sentences to differentiate them: うちの子{こ}は新{あたら}しいものを見{み}ると、すぐほしがる。 ...
7
votes
3answers
403 views

けれども as a neutral connector

In this thread on appositives, @OskarLindberg had mentioned that けれども could be used as a neutral connector. My understanding up until now was that it presented contrasting ideas, being translated as ...
3
votes
2answers
185 views

Verb + うる form. What is this?

Can't really understand this form: I've seen already this form with 考える and translated it like this: 考えうることだ - conceivable (possible) However how do you translate with other verbs? is this ...
1
vote
1answer
94 views

Do I say えいがにみました or えいがをみました ?

Do I say えいがにみました or えいがをみました? Thank you :D
3
votes
2answers
232 views

Usage of particles で and に with ~的

A sentence from JapanesePod 101: 北米とヨーロッパでは通常スカートは女性がはくものと思われているが、世界的には多くの男性がスカートをはく。 In North America and Europe a skirt is thought of as something a woman wears, but in many countries men ...
2
votes
2answers
145 views

Particles に, で for temporal vs spatial location

What does it mean to put で after a temporal expression? I was taught that only に should be used for times but I still see sentences with で sometimes. This is basically my current understanding: ...
3
votes
1answer
254 views

Is に okay in 「田中さんはビデオゲームに遊んでいます」?

I have a question with the follow sentence: 田中さんはビデオゲームに遊んでいます Is the particle に okay?
0
votes
1answer
124 views

technical term for “形容動詞{けいようどうし} + にする”?

A subset of Japanese nouns is the サ変名詞{へんめいし} nouns such as: 勉強{べんきょう}する 運転{うんてん}する 残業{ざんぎょう}する A subset of 形容動詞 words can be appended with "にする" such as: 静{しず}かにする 大切{たいせつ}にする ...