文法. A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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7
votes
2answers
259 views

Is this seat being chased, or is the person in it being chased from it?

In my JLPT textbook, I have this sentence: 彼{かれ}は国民{こくみん}の信頼{しんらい}を裏切{うらぎ}った。それゆえに、権力{けんりょく}の座{ざ}を追{お}われることとなったのである。 I think this sentence means, "He betrayed the trust of the people. As a ...
1
vote
1answer
171 views

Dazai Osamu - 人間失格 「自分は[無]{む}だ、[風]{かぜ}だ、[空]{そら}だ」 grammar?

I have a question regarding the following passage: 何でもいいから、笑わせておればいいのだ、そうすると、人間たちは、自分が彼[等]{ら}の[所謂]{いわゆる}「生活」の[外]{そと}にいても、あまりそれを気にしないのではないかしら、とにかく、彼等人間たちの[目障]{めざわ}りになってはいけない、自分は無だ、風だ、[空]{そら}だ、...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the difference between “verb+て+みる” and “verb+(よ)う+とする”?

In Japanese there are words which mean "to try something or attempt at doing something", e.g. 試す, 試みる and つとめる. However, at the same time we also have two grammatical constructions "verb+て+みる" and "...
4
votes
1answer
192 views

-まする verb ending. Is る a particle?

Has anyone ever come across the form -まする where -ます would be expected? I have just come across a sentence ending ...と存じまする. My first thought was that る must be a particle, but I can't find any ...
12
votes
3answers
2k views

What form is あり?

On the road outside my daughter's nursery is painted 保育園アリ. I guess this is a form of ある, but what's it called, and why is あり used not ある?
4
votes
2answers
184 views

Can もう一つ Be Used As a Question?

Hirigana: もう一{ひと}つ Translation: Another; One More Scenario: I'm drinking with a close friend and we've both finished our beers. I get up to go to the fridge, point to his empty bottle and say "もう一{...
4
votes
1answer
101 views

Should: ほうがいい、べき、ことだ

So far, I have learned about three different ways to say "should" in Japanese. I'm interested in knowing the differences among ほうがいい、べき and ことだ. What are some situations that each form would be better ...
2
votes
2answers
148 views

Is the object uniquely determined when using は in the following sentences?

卵は私が食べた。Speaking of the egg, I ate. Is what I ate the egg? Is it possible that I ate something other than the egg?
32
votes
5answers
3k views

i-adjectives used as na-adjectives: is there a difference? (e.g. 大きい versus 大きな)

There are at the very least several i-adjectives can be used as na-adjectives by dropping the final い and adding な in its place. The most common examples of this, as far as I am aware, are 大きい and 小さい,...
4
votes
2answers
266 views

What is the difference between だらけ and ばかり

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flfi38e0NKk I'm watching the above video, and they are explaining だらけ, as being synonymous with ばかり. However, as is always the case when I come across words that have ...
1
vote
2answers
208 views

家を出ます ? Why not に?

Why is this を and not に to indicate moving in a direction? 今日は天気がいいから家を出ます Unless this example is wrong? But it is from JapanesePod101
6
votes
2answers
127 views

にしても and としても, is there a difference?

にしても and としても...Don't they both have a meaning of "even if"? Is there any subtle difference between these two forms?
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Understanding ということのはずだ in this sentence

食事に求められるものは多々あるがー栄養バランスだの、しあわせ感だの、心の交流だのーしかしそのなかでもっとも求められているものは、空腹を満たす、一刻もはやく満たす、ということのはずだが、...rant continues There are many things that are desired in a meal but, nutritional balance, a happy ...
5
votes
1answer
109 views

Why is あるうちに correct but 残るうちに is not?

This question comes from 新完全マスター文法N2: ( )うちに欲しい物を買っておこう。 1. お金がある 2. 給料をもらう 3. お金が残る The second answer seems pretty obviously incorrect to me, but I'm not sure why #1 is correct yet #3 is not. ...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Questions about causative constructions

If I wanted to say "The teacher who made the kids write a letter to their friend in the hospital", how should I write it? Are 2 にs ok in the same sentence? Would 病院にいる友達に子供に手紙を書かせた先生。be acceptable?...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

What are the differences between 出かける and 行く?

What are the differences between A and B? I think both mean almost the same thing. I often went to various places once I had bought a new car. A: 新しい車を買ったばかりのころは、よくいろいろな所へ行った。 B: ...
0
votes
1answer
70 views

貢がせる verb and its usage

遠坂にそんな高価な品を貢がせる悪しき男はあたしが天に代わって誅罰を下してくれるわー!キエー!」 【貢がせる女、貢ぐ男】 1. 思わせぶりな態度で男に貢がせようとする女のこと。 2. セックスのために売春婦に金を払う男、または付き合うために女に貢ぐ男。 The evil man who is tricking Tohsaka with precious goods. Is this ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Imperative with masu stem [duplicate]

I just had my first karate lesson and was puzzled. When the instructor wanted us to start or stop he would say はじめ and やめ. I would have expected to hear はじめろ or はじめて for example. Is it proper grammar ...
3
votes
1answer
194 views

How to use nested causative?

I want to exaggerate my previous question by nesting one more causative action. Assume that there are a policeman, a girl with her dog, and a snatcher on the street. The dog belongs to the girl. ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

What is the difference between Vてはじめる and はじめてV meaning?

例えば: 1.子供のとき、コーヒーをはじめて飲みました。 2.子供のとき、コーヒーを飲んではじめました。 I think both mean "When I was a child, I started/tried to drink coffee." And how do I say "I drink coffee for the first time"?
0
votes
1answer
93 views

Is the word ぐらい a noun? Why do we need の between ぐらい and はず?

Recall that はず can follow a noun followed by の a verb in plain form i adjective na adjective followed by な for the present tense and considering the following sentence, 十年前は小学生だったが、...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

How can we determine the subject of 「彼{かれ}が来{こ}ないことを知{し}りませんでした。」?

Consider the following sentence. 彼{かれ}が来{こ}ないことを知{し}りませんでした。 I really get confused in determining the subject. Which is the correct translation? I did not know that he will not come. He did ...
6
votes
3answers
274 views

Meaning of こともあるもんです

How should I translate こともある in this sentence (response to '何それ?'): あなたが辞書を使うなんて、はなはだ珍妙なこともあるもんです Literal translation of はなはだ珍妙なこともある would be 'there are also really odd things', but that makes ...
4
votes
2answers
88 views

Should the tense of predicate in main clause be the same as the tense of predicate in the relative clause?

It is a very basic question that I need to be confirmed. Consider the following sentence (taken from a book titled Essential Japanese Grammar by Masahiro Tanimori and Eriko Sato). ...
3
votes
2answers
127 views

Do X and Y have the same state when using ~X にかぎらず Y?

Consider the following sentences. A: 女性に限らず、男性も化粧品を使うようになった。 My translations: A'1: Using cosmetics is not limited to women but also has been started by men. A'2: Not only women but ...
2
votes
2answers
111 views

Why did the author use に in the following sentence?

Why did the author use に in the following sentence? 理解しかねて首をかしげる会場の様子に、司会役が「もう少し具体的に」と重ねてたずねた。 たずねる needs に but for animate objects such as human beings. In the above sentence, に is used after ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Is a palindrome a thing?

A palindrome is a word or phrase that is the same backwards and forwards, such as "Bob", "aibohphobia" or "A man, a plan, a canal: Panama." In English, as well as many other languages, this is a ...
7
votes
3answers
507 views

How does the present tense work in a relative clause?

そんなわけで、まだ日も暮れない夕方の通学路を、駅に向かってゆっくりと歩く俺と加藤。 I encountered this quote in a light novel and am stuck on how to interpret it. It feels like 歩く should be "walking" in this context, but it is not 歩いている. ...
3
votes
1answer
179 views

Verb combination (なりたくって and き消す etc.)

I have started to learn japanese recently and tried to translate some lyrics. But I pumped quickly on words I was unable to translate even with jisho.org and romaji version of the songtexts. ...
1
vote
1answer
159 views

Inconsistency in applying direct object to 勝つ

As far as I know, the verb 勝つ takes a direct object with に as 彼はチェス試合に勝った。He won the chess match. and takes an indirect object with に対して as 彼は私に対してチェス試合に勝った。He won the chess match against me. ...
5
votes
2answers
407 views

Who is the subject of this sentence?

Most of the time when I read Japanese sentences, I have no confidence whether the speaker or another person is the subject. Let's see one example as follows. 主人は、料理にかけては、誰にも引けを取らないと信じている。 I ...
5
votes
4answers
196 views

Function of は in にはなる

The author is complaining that she hates men's cooking but acknowledges that somewhere in the world there may be some that she likes. She then says: だからただしくは、今まで喰らってきた男の料理を私は好きにはなれなかった、と言うべきなんだろう。 ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

How to determine the scope of modifiers in long sentences?

I found a difficulty to determine the scope of modifiers in long sentences. To make it clearer, see the following sentences. My translation may be wrong. Sentence 1 新しい工場を建てるに当たって(は)、環境への影響などを調べ、...
4
votes
3answers
202 views

Saying for so much time / for so long

I want to know how to form the sentence "I looked at the water for so long that people thought I was crazy" but I'm not sure of how I can express "for so long" in Japanese I thought of ...
1
vote
2answers
111 views

Is Japanese similar to English in that saying 享 twice in 享年 means last last year?

In English it's possible to say last last year to informally say "the year before the last". Is it similar in Japanese that I can say きょうきょう年 to mean the same?
4
votes
2answers
112 views

と聞いて in this sentence

山に登るのは大変そうだから、本当は行きたくなかった。 Climbing mountain seems difficult so truthfully, i didn't want to go... The second sentence is the one i need help with... I wasn't sure if i get it right... でも ロープウェイを ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Using から (because) with nouns, adjectives and verbs

Could I please check my understanding of how から is used with nouns etc? I today read what I think were some rules. から needs だ/です depending on what precedes it. しずか ですから 散歩しましょう - -na adj, needs です ...
4
votes
2answers
68 views

What is the nuance of 寝てもらう in this context?

Consider the following sentence. 私のアパートは狭い上に家具がたくさんあるので、お客さんが来た時、寝てもらう場所がない。 What is the nuance of using 寝てもらう rather than just 寝る? The guest is sleeping for my purpose?
2
votes
1answer
77 views

How to use とても in Japanese

I have often seen ”とても” translated as "very" in English. However, I also have seen direct translations (automatic translations, so I don't know if this still applies) where what is being translated, ...
7
votes
2answers
864 views

Why is it incorrect to say 「寒くて、窓を閉めてください」?

寒くて、窓を閉めてください I thought it can mean: Since it's cold, please close the window. The book said we cannot use words that express speakers intent in the form of requests, order, permissions, ...
3
votes
2answers
79 views

Difference between 弾けるように and 弾きたい

I have a sentence example, the translation being "I want to be able to play the piano" ピアノが 弾けるように なりたい Can somebody please tell me how this differs to ピアノを 弾きたいんです I am not understanding why ように ...
-4
votes
3answers
20k views

How do you use “koto”?

My book says that "koto" can convert verbs into nouns. It can also convert adjectives and adverbial nouns, but what does that mean? It gives examples like: Tori o tsukamaeru koto wa kantan ja ...
6
votes
1answer
385 views

Unknown word and strange use of えと

Take the sentence: バッサリいこうぜ!うっとうしいだろ[長]{なげ}えとよ。 The first, from context, I think means "You're gonna get a haircut!" I can't find バッサリ in the dictionary, though. The second probably says "It's ...
1
vote
1answer
116 views

What additional meaning that なんだ add to the sentence

A. 彼は大学生ですよ B. 彼は大学生なんだよ What difference that なんだ makes in this sentence? For A, I understand it well as "He is a college student!" For B, eventhough i have read much article written about なんだ... ...
6
votes
1answer
101 views

State of being in a relative clause help

I want to know how to form the sentence "We know that this is a small shop, but [...] . " I thought I could write it as "私たちはそれが小さい店だことを知っています," but it turned out that this sentence is gramatically ...
3
votes
2answers
105 views

Saying something was happening when something happened

I want to know what is the form for "when" in a phrase like "I was reading a book, when someone knocked on my door." I'm aware of the usage of "toki" in phrases like "When I was a teacher..." and "...
6
votes
1answer
856 views

What does として mean here?

警視庁は12日、父親を鈍器のようなもので殴ったとして東京都中野区に住む少年を、傷害の疑いで逮捕した。 Tell me please, what does として mean in this sentence?
1
vote
1answer
53 views

What is the function of として in this sentence? (Vたとして) [duplicate]

From a news article: 福島県いわき市の建設会社「武蔵建設」の敷地に男性の遺体を埋めたとして、死体遺棄容疑で同社の元社長ら男6人が逮捕された事件で、県警は7日、強盗殺人容疑で6人を再逮捕した。 What role is として fulfilling? It seems like it may be functioning as a sort of and? My ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Help with understanding why “のか” is used in this sentence [duplicate]

I read this sentence: "私はなぜ彼がこれをしているのか、分からない" The sentence is supposed to mean "I don't understand why he is doing this," and I think it is grammatically correct since I found it in a japanese site ...
4
votes
1answer
301 views

Is it possible to use ~さえ~ば with more than one requirement?

I have not found any sentence using ~さえ~ば with more than one requirement. Let's consider the following sentence with 3 requirements I am healthy I have enough money I can speak English to be ...