文法. A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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2
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1answer
64 views

Use of こうして in this sentence

Can someone please explain which part of this sentence こうして is modifying and how it is changing the meaning of the sentence: 鴫{しぎ}を見るために、行ったことはあったが、暑い季節にこうして弁当まで持っていくのは初めてである。 Without こうして I ...
11
votes
3answers
747 views

What does it mean when この is in front of a personal pronoun?

As in このオレさま and この僕も. I know the literal translation, but I never understood what the intent of it is.
9
votes
1answer
342 views

What's the difference between 歩んでいった and 歩んできた?

私はまっすぐな人生を歩んできた。 私はまっすぐな人生を歩んでいった。 Could someone explain to me the difference between the two? Thanks a lot! Edit: I still find ていった confusing even after reading the other post. So ...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

なくちゃ is the short informal of なくてはいけません but why is there なくちゃいけないの rather than なくちゃの?

なくちゃ is the short informal of なくてはいけません but why is there なくちゃいけないの rather than なくちゃの? For me, なくちゃいけないの sounds like double negative being used here.
0
votes
3answers
759 views

How to say “I recently learned how to speak japanese” in japanese?

How to say "I recently learned how to speak Japanese" in Japanese? is it: watashi wa hanasemashita nihongo koto ga saikin manabimasu or watashi wa nihongo hanasemashita koto ga saikin ...
1
vote
1answer
105 views

出てこないと気持ちは落ち着かない meaning

「ハリー・ポッター」シリーズには、ロンやハーマイオニーだけでなく「ネビル・ロングボトム」が出てこないと気持ちは落ち着かない。 My western brain can't comprehend the final part of the sentence! I know でてくる is something like "show up" and 落ち着く something like ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

落ちてしまいました versus 落としてしまいました

If I lose my wallet and want to report it to the police officer, what is the correct expression between the two sentences below? 財布が落ちてしまいましたが、。。。 財布を落としてしまいましたが、。。。
1
vote
1answer
272 views

あんまり versus あまり

What is the difference between あんまり and あまり? Please also provide me with some examples.
1
vote
1answer
103 views

くれる, あげる, and もらう

Which pair is correct? A 父がお正月に一万円あげました。私は今までに、こんなにたくさんもらったことがなかったので、とてもうれしかったです。 B 父がお正月に一万円くれました。私は今までに、こんなにたくさんくれたことがなかったので、とてもうれしかったです。
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Are there more い adjectives or more だ adjectives?

Learning adjectives, I knew there are two major groups of adjectives い and だ. I am wondering, which group has more adjectives?
2
votes
2answers
130 views

Is しようしよう here same as しよう?

連絡しようしようと思いながらまた一年がたった。While I was encouraging myself to get in touch, another year passed. (example sentence from 研究社 新和英大辞典 第5版) Is しよう repeated twice for emphasis ("let's do it! let's do it!" ...
3
votes
1answer
133 views

The meaning of 美味しいクッキーで子供たちに大人気

Woman 1 「アスタの作るクッキーは香りが豊かで、焼き始めるとスタリオンの子供たちが屋敷に集まってくるのよね」 アスタ 「簡単に焼けるから、みんなに配る分もすぐに準備出来るからね」 Woman 2 「うむ、領地の子供たちに美味しい物を振る舞うとは……さすが領主の義理息子だけはある」 Woman 1 「感心しているけど、あんたは実の娘でしょうが」 ...
5
votes
3answers
288 views

Please teach me more about ハダカ格

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agent_(grammar): In certain languages, the agent is declined or otherwise marked to indicate its grammatical role. In Japanese, for instance, the agentive ...
3
votes
1answer
106 views

そこには私一人しかいなかった - why not “私は”?

I understand this sentence, but I cannot explain to myself why I don't need any particle for "私一人". What part of speech is it?
3
votes
1answer
121 views

Do I have the right idea with ~てきた here?

「日記を書いていたらまさにお腹がすいてきた」 That's the sentence. I believe it'd be, "I am certain to get hungry when I write in my diary." I'm just not entirely sure I'm right simply because the it is きた instead of くる, ...
3
votes
1answer
163 views

What function does とは have here? Is に omitted here?

不自由とは無縁の生活を捨てて、神様は不便極まるこの世界にのめり込んでいった。 Is it defining something? Also in the second part, is the に particle before the intransitive verb omitted or does it not require it? ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Where does げ come from? [duplicate]

Where does ~げ come from? For example in 地震の影響で工場を閉じることになったと説明する社長は悔しげだった。 it is supposed to mean that we get a slight impression that the manager was "regretful" while explaining why the ...
2
votes
1answer
664 views

Is it valid to ask このグラフによると、カイロの人口がいつ増えてきましたか?

In my understanding, 増えてきました means "started to increase". If my understanding is correct, I think I can ask as follows このグラフによると、カイロの人口がいつ増えてきましたか? and the answer must be 1976. What do you ...
2
votes
1answer
173 views

When to use べき and when to use べし

From my meager understanding of Middle Japanese, I have learned that, in essence, べき is the attributive form and べし is the predicative form (feel free to correct me if I'm wrong), but in Modern ...
4
votes
3answers
442 views

Does contraction and elision affect formation of relative clauses?

For example, やらなければならない can modify 時 to form やらなければならない時 and I know that the adjective い ending can simply have a noun appended after it. However when it's contracted to やらなきゃ can I simply add a ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Apparent inconsistency in turning い-adjectives into nouns: 赤い→赤 vs 近い→近く

Consider these adjectives: 赤い 近い The い-declension works for sentence ending as well as directly modifying a noun: Now if I want to express the adjective as a noun, for example I'm talking about ...
9
votes
2answers
846 views

Verb volitional form (動詞の意志形) - usage

I have a couple of questions about the volitional form of verbs that I've become unclear on lately. Here is a Bible passage containing the grammar in question: (Note that I'm using a Bible passage ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

AはBにある versus BにAがある

What is the difference between the following two sentences? お酒は机の上にあります。 机の上にお酒があります。
1
vote
2answers
154 views

correct usage of 'There be …' construction and 'somebody has something'

How do I express the meaning of "somebody has something" in Japanese? In English the 'there be...' construction means something exists somewhere, which equals the Japanese 〜〜があります or 〜〜がいます. For ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Question conserning using とかしたら

A character from a book (カゲロウデイズ -in a daze-) said this: 「ほら、お揃いのカップでみんなでお茶とかしたら楽しそうじゃない?」 I am confused as to the use of the "とかしたら" after "お茶." She is saying that something seems fun with the ...
4
votes
1answer
123 views

Question about とき

I am working on the みんなの日本語 標準問題集 初級 I Lesson 23. There is a question related to the usage of とき。 パスポートを(なくします ー>________)とき、どうしますか。 けさここへ (来ます ー>_________)とき、駅で新聞を買いました。 The answers are: ...
1
vote
1answer
216 views

trying to learn reading Japanese [closed]

I'm learning Japanese and currently I finished the hiragana and katakana charts. A friend of mine suggested me to start reading something simple to build a vocabulary , so I found a children's story ...
1
vote
1answer
112 views

What does わけ do in this sentence?

そんなスゴイ御方は、ヒューマンのお店でアルバイトをしてしまっているわけだけど。勿論、お金を稼いで明日を生き抜くためだ。 What meaning does わけ give to that sentence? Is it indicating a reason? Thanks!
4
votes
1answer
172 views

How to appropriately pair tenses in subordinate and main clauses?

Consider the following combination. Which is the correct one? テレビが私の国で 《できた》 のは1960 《です》。 テレビが私の国で 《できる》 のは1960 《です》。 テレビが私の国で 《できた》 のは1960 《でした》。 テレビが私の国で 《できる》 のは1960 《でした》。 Note: The important ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

When to use Vている and when to use the dictionary form?

Say that I am currently eating something, would I say 今食べています, or would I say 今食べます? Similarly, if I want to say that I know English, would I use 英語をしります or would I use 英語を知っています? What's the ...
1
vote
1answer
125 views

What does でもわかる mean and what does あって+か do?

丸い顔と丸い頬は幼い容貌を形作り、そのせいもあってか、服の上からでもわかるくらい豊かに成熟している胸元にはつい目を引き寄せられてしまう。 What does あって+か do in this sentence? Also what meaning does でもわかる have in this sentence? Is the でも being used as "even"? ...
5
votes
1answer
128 views

Embedded question followed by と

What is the grammar behind the use of the quote marker と in this sentence? 雨がいつ降るかと大変楽しみにしていましたが、なかなか雨が降りません。 He was looking forward to when the rain would come, but... Can I also write ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

How to say “The girl who likes being photographed is my friend”?

I want to say The girl who likes being photographed is my friend and my attempt is as follows,  写真を撮って貰うことが好きだ女性は私の友達です。 Is my attempt correct?
1
vote
1answer
314 views

The concept of past perfect in Japanese ~たのでした ~たのです

I saw ~たのでした in a Japanese storybook. I didn't have any idea about it because I only know ~たのです(~たんです) if I want to say something in the past. I am wondering if ~たのでした(~たんでした) is the concept of past ...
18
votes
3answers
4k views

Usage of なんて and なんか as emphasis

When are なんて and なんか used as emphasis in casual speech? Are they used when you're surprised, angry or can it be both? What sort of feeling does it convey to the listener compared to a normal sentence ...
1
vote
1answer
136 views

Te-form beginner question [duplicate]

いもうとは東京に行っています。 How can I discover the meaning of this sentence? I'm studying the te-form and I'm a little bit confused. The correct translation will be: My little sister is in Tokyo (she´s ...
3
votes
1answer
222 views

Correct way of saying 'I did not see people in the library'

人々をライブラリで見なかった。 Is this the correct way of writing 'I did not see people in the library'? I'm not 100% with the particles but 'wo' seems right attached to people. I use ライブラリ just for the sake of ...
3
votes
2answers
203 views

Difference between 「にかかわらず」 and 「を問わず」

I can't figure out what difference there's between those two grammar forms. They're both used as "regardless of" (like in 年齢を問わず、 年齢にかかわらず), so what's the difference that I'm not seeing here?
1
vote
2answers
273 views

Difference between ことから and から

Are there any differences in intonation if used in a sentence like this? 支持率が高いことから/から、多くの国民が新内閣に期待していることがわかる
6
votes
1answer
138 views

What is the explanation for the archaic attributive particle が becoming a modern subject particle?

While reading though Haruo Shirane’s Classical Japanese: A Grammar, I came across the following passage: が started as an attributive case particle, became a subject particle, and then turned into ...
0
votes
1answer
102 views

How should かしら be used in the middle of the sentence?

Original sentence in the novel is: 何かしらの手は打ってくるだろう A post in this site shows that it is a particle used more by females, while tangorin also shows it to be used as the meaning of "head", aside ...
0
votes
2answers
109 views

How should 手は打ってくる be translated?

The full dialogue in the light novel is: 「だが注意したまえ。白峰は聡い男だからネ。何かしらの手は打ってくるだろう」 The characters were discussing about some operation. I'm not sure of why the author would use the particle は here ...
4
votes
2answers
242 views

Why don't we use ~なくて instead of ~ないで?

Background In my understanding that might be wrong, I think the ~ない form of a verb becomes an i-adjective. For example, 納{なっ}豆{とう}を食{た}べない人{ひと}が多{おお}いです。 where 納{なっ}豆{とう}を食{た}べない modifies ...
3
votes
2answers
175 views

Why is 先 needed in アルバイト先で?

Based on my attempt below, アルバイト and アルバイト先 have the same meaning of "part-time job", so why is 先 needed in アルバイト先で ? The following searching results are intentionally attached here to prove I have ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Is my understanding for the phrase, なくてはならなくなる correct?

The original sentence from the light novel: もしもこの作戦が失敗したら、我々は、我々の宿願の為、カルペデイムに戦争を仕掛けなくてはならなくなる。 カルペデイム, Carpe Diem, is a fictional place in the light novel setting. I've found reference for ...
0
votes
1answer
81 views

How is しまえば used? In what context and how it should translated to?

Was reading a light novel and this sentence popped up: ここまで動{うご}いてしまえば、フューネラルに気付{きづ}かれるのも時間の問題かもしれません。 フューネラル refers to an organisation within the light novel setting. I'm confused by the ...
0
votes
2answers
140 views

Does this sound like a native speaker? [closed]

does this sentence sound like a native speaker? 明日から、問題が有れば、私に話す前に、まずメールで会話の内容を送信します。お願いします。 Any suggestion are welcome. Thank you so much.
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Difference between のに and というのに

I have already looked at this question but it didn't really help my understanding. I have the following sentence: 家来たちがそれぞれ自分の荷物を持ち上げて帰る用意をしているというのに、彦一{ひこいち}はなにも入っていない風呂敷{ふろしき}をたたんでふところにしまいました。 ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

What does ホッチキスでとめる mean?

I have a difficulty to translate ホッチキスでとめる. ホッチキス means stapler で means with とめる means stop Stop with stapler? What?
3
votes
1answer
106 views

Confusing clause in middle of sentence

In the following sentence: 彦一{ひこいち}さんがのこった荷物を見たときは、皆の握り飯が入っているお弁当など重そうなものしか残っていませんでした。 I don't understand how the part in bold fits into the sentence. Without that part I have When 彦一 saw ...