A collective term for syntax (the way sentences are put together) and morphology (forms of words, including the way new words are put together). Often used to describe function words such as particles, to describe word endings, and to talk about general sentence structure.

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1answer
73 views

break down ~いていいと思ってる

平民が、貴族にそんな口[利]{き}いていいと思ってるの. Above is the full sentence from a book I'm reading. I get いいとおもっている part = think its nice (roughly), and already looked up 貴族に, そんな口利き, but the sentence as a whole ...
1
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2answers
92 views

How would you use 裏切り in a sentence?

I can't find much information on this word. I know that it means "backstabbing" or "betrayal", but there are little to no example sentences which use it. For example, would I use it in a sentence like ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

How do I turn this into “will” form?

I am trying to say "You will not feel good if you eat such food" and this has been my attempt so far: そんな食べ物を食べれば、君はいい感じない How can I express "will not" in this case? Also, any corrections in ...
2
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3answers
138 views

~ておく / とく for preparation (Conjugation and nuance)

A few quick questions regarding ~ておく and the casual form ~とく Firstly, when changing from ~ておく to the more casual ~とく I'm assuming the verb is first conjugated to the ~て form then the ~て is dropped ...
7
votes
3answers
411 views

What is the difference between がる and ぎみ?

In one of my study flashcards, I have this sentence: 疲{つか}れぎみだけど生{い}きてます。 Which should translate to something like, "[He] appears worn out but [he's] still kicking." The main point is that in ...
3
votes
2answers
84 views

What is the difference between だらけ and ばかり

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flfi38e0NKk I'm watching the above video, and they are explaining だらけ, as being synonymous with ばかり. However, as is always the case when I come across words that have ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

Grammar: Combine 慣れる and -くなる

I am stuck trying to explain that "I got accustomed". I would like to use the same grammar as in: 寒くなる But with 慣れる Could you point me to the right direction and also share other patterns ...
0
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1answer
124 views

I do not understand the meaning of として in the sentence

I do not understand the meaning of として in this sentence: 設備機器を固定資産として登録するために必要としているのでしょう.
4
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1answer
165 views

Is 拒絶反応対受け入れ a grammatically correct way to say “acceptance versus rejection”?

I am looking to translate "acceptance versus rejection" in the same sense as "acceptance versus alienation". Is the following statement grammatically correct? Does it make sense to word the following ...
1
vote
1answer
122 views

What does [可愛が]りたい mean and how to use it?

桃香を可愛がりたい気持ち、抑えられないよ Touka o kawaii ga ritai kimochi, osae rare nai yo. The example sentence is like that. I'm wondering if this ritai here is in the same use as aritai like in Questions about ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Ta form + ように + phrase with verb meaning/usage e.g. 拗ねたように頬を膨らませる

少し拗ねたように頬を膨らませる 諦めたように小さく頷いた 思い切ったように口を開いた Can anyone explain these or how you interpret the ta form of the verb in these usages. Thanks.
5
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2answers
178 views
11
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1answer
531 views

verb た-form + そう, hearsay or observation?

Verb る-form + そう indicates hearsay. 帰るそうだ 'I hear he will go home.' 帰らないそうだ [Negative] Verb masu stem (i.e. conjunctive form 連用形) + そう shows information obtained through the senses, ...
49
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9answers
3k views

What is the こと in sentences such as あなたのことが好きだ?

There were a lot of great answers here. I gave the checkmark to ento's answer because I felt it most completely explained all aspects of this use of こと. But many of the other answers are excellent, so ...
3
votes
3answers
219 views

Asking “have you tried X” or “have you ever Y”?

This has always been a problem for me, so I'm hoping you guys can answer it once and for all. Often, I want to ask somebody if they've ever done something before. For example, in an email yesterday I ...
8
votes
2answers
188 views

Meaning of 「生きるにしても死ぬにしても」

In the video game Mother 3, there is a group of beings called the Magypsy, who are rumored to be very old. While talking to humans, one of them says the following: 人間なんて生きるにしても死ぬにしても精々たった100年。 ...
0
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1answer
92 views

Is there a difference between the particle お (o) and the particle を (wo) [duplicate]

So I'm just confused. I've read that when writing を is used, but when talking お is used. Is this true or are they entirely different?
7
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2answers
384 views

Which verb receives a negation in a Japanese sentence?

I can say 歩いて渡る which translates to "to cross by walking". However, if I would like to say "I am not going to cross by walking, but by some other means", would I say 歩かないで渡る or 歩いて渡らない? There are ...
9
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3answers
442 views

Imperative used instead of conditional form

This quesion: と言っても vs とは言え . reminded me of a similar case: どっちにしても vs どっちにしろ which are also synonymous as far as I can tell. That got me thinking: Is this coincidental? Are there ...
1
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2answers
319 views

What separates the different ways to ask a question in Japanese (何, どう, どんな, etc.)?

It's been something I've been thinking about for a while, but could never answer in a more concrete way. This is most apparent when I compare the functions of 何 and どう. I know that 何, どう and どんな are ...
1
vote
1answer
470 views

までに, まえに and うちに to express “before doing X, Y happens”

I've come across this sentence: 主人が帰ってくる までに 晩御飯の買い物と支度をしなければいけません.  I would have used まえに instead of までに. Is it correct? How does the meaning change? Furthermore, is it correct to say ...
3
votes
2answers
182 views

Meaning of そうして

I can't completely understand the meaning of そうして in the following dialogue. As far as I can guess it is similar to こうして, but what is the point of using そう? ...
0
votes
1answer
115 views

can I get away with not having a subject in a sentence if the subject is not relevant to the meaning?

I would like to reference a question I have about this thread that I asked a few days ago: 「思っているようです。」or 「思っている。」 for describing another person's opinion That question was clearly answered. This ...
0
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1answer
97 views

How is て行く being used in すすんで行く and さいて行く?

I came across すすんで行く and さいて行く in a vocabulary list, and it was immediately obvious that there was probably some sort of grammatical construct involving て行く that was in use here. I don't really know ...
7
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2answers
184 views

Does 友達 have the plural marker たち “built-in”?

I cannot recall this very clearly so I'm sorry if this is all not correct but someone once told me that the word 友達{ともだち} has the plural marker たち "built-in" and therefore you cannot say 友達たち about ...
5
votes
2answers
190 views

Why do we have to use ている form of 思う with third person subject [duplicate]

I've read from many grammar books that when we are talking about a third people thinking about something, we must use 思っている, and it means "think" instead of "be thinking". For example: ...
22
votes
3answers
2k views

Difference between -ていく and -てくる

Can someone explain the differences between v-ていく and v-てくる for me. I know that they both express some kind of ongoing action (like a place getting crowded). For example, what's the difference between ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

What's the meaning of も and また in 「これほど無駄な本というのもまた珍しい」?

I saw this scathing review of KY式日本語 on Amazon JP. This is the full sentence I'm asking about: 出版する意味を感じられない本は多数世に出ているが、これほど無駄な本というのもまた珍しい Ignoring the もまた part, what I get from this is ...
3
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1answer
630 views

Can うちは mean the same thing as うちに?

Tell me please in the sentence below, can うちは means the same as うちに? Or it's just うち like "we" ? Thank you very much for help!
8
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3answers
160 views

How do ことになる and ようになる differ? (When ことになる cannot = “It has been decided that”)

I understand that ことになる has the meaning "It has been decided that" and can be used to point to a ritual or habit of a society like taking off your shoes. However, I don't get what it means when it is ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

What is the difference between ~あろうが and ~あろうと?

I'm writing a report for a class, and at first I wrote:  […]どのような批判があろうが[…] But then I sat back and thought, maybe it should actually be:  […]どのような批判があろうと[…] But now I'm not sure if ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

ではないか Grammar translation

what does ではないか mean in the sentence below? And can someone please translate it? 耳に馴染みのない方も多いのではないかと思いますが、 (after that he explains the word)....
3
votes
1answer
127 views

な, の, である and ために

When used with a noun ために could have two meanings : (1) 学生のために、奨学金がある。 There are scholarships for (the sake of) students. (2) 学生のために、学校の規則に従わなければならない。 Since s/he is a student s/he ...
1
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1answer
94 views

What is the meaning of masu-stem + proposition

Example sentence: オオカミのことばに従い、 森に行った。 What is the meaning of this construction? Does it have a special meaning?
2
votes
1answer
94 views

When is it possible to split である in で+ある

It is very difficult to find literature on this topic and the only related question is Splicing である with a topic whose answer is (to my view) a bit elusive and the reference provided by snailboat is ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

How to say “As a <position>, …”

Example : As a friend, I think we should... What do you add to ともだち to add the "As a" prefix? Also, after that part, does the rest of the sentence follow the normal rules of a Japanese sentence? ...
2
votes
1answer
177 views

What does adding お at the end of a word change?

An example would be: "watashi wa cake o(お) tabetai". What does the お do? I tried on google translate and it seems it gives pertenence to that thing..like it belongs either to you or me..but I still ...
3
votes
1answer
178 views

How to read 連体形 + 上

Taking an example from a page naruto linked in another thread: 外国人が日本語を習得する上で難しい点がたくさんあります。 My inclination is to read this as うえ since it's followed by で, however I've got a nagging feeling it ...
4
votes
1answer
208 views

What's the analysis for たりとも?

Quoth Edict, たりとも means "(not) even; (not) any", and is probably used as such: 一問たりとも答えられなかった。(even one question, cannot answer) Is たりとも made up of the individual portions たり ("such things as") ...
3
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2answers
126 views

Use of 自分を and もらう

I have trouble understanding the following sentence: ルーカスさんは、自分をファーストネームで呼んでもらいたいと言うけれども、三年も年上の人なので、どうも「トム」とは呼びにくい。 Is it. Mister Lukas wants to get called by his first name but it's hard to do ...
10
votes
3answers
298 views

私は猫が好き and 猫は私が好き

I'm an absolute beginner. I've learned Japanese in my spare time for less than two months. This is my first question here. Even though I think this question is potentially trivial, it's perhaps the ...
5
votes
1answer
130 views

When should I use で or を particles? [duplicate]

Newcomer here. Trying to learn Japanese on my own for years now. Here's a first question. How can I make sure to learn correctly the difference between using を and で in the context of an action ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Using the stem form of a verb like the て form, as in 燃えゆく or 飲みほして

What is the significance of sometimes using the stem form of a verb like how the て form would be? For example: 燃えゆく (from HANABI) 飲みほして (from Ambiguous) It's something I hear now and again, ...
9
votes
3answers
447 views

Problems with は and が

Consider: [A] 猫が好きだ To me this means [A']"I like cats." Contrast this to: [B] 猫は好きだ To me this means [B']"I like cats (among other animals)" I based my understanding of [B] from Derek ...
5
votes
2answers
122 views

What is “koto” used for?

I know "koto" means thing, but I've seen it used like this in my Self-Study Japanese book: Nihon no koto ga yoku wakarimasu ka. and Chiimu no koto o kangaete imasshita Does this mean Japan's thing ...
10
votes
3answers
548 views

Is ~も really marking the word just prior to it?

I'm translating an excerpt for fun, but this section struck me as odd: ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

となる - Grammatical explanation please [duplicate]

can someone please explain となる ? I read it everywhere but still don't know what it exactly means. Here's just an example sentence: この世界が心つなぐ鍵となる
3
votes
1answer
150 views

“は + verb” instead of “を + verb”?

I have stumbled upon instances where "は + verb" is used in situations where I thought "を + verb" should be used. For example recently I've seen "その覚悟はしてました" (I was prepared for that) and "楽な道は選ぶな" ...
7
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1answer
138 views

How to list numbers of things

Where do you place the counter in Japanese when you want to specify how many of something there are, especially if you're listing multiple things? I believe the counter usually goes after the ...
3
votes
3answers
142 views

Valid interpretations of the (first) て-form in 何かを犠牲にして、その上で、平和は成り立っている。

What are the valid interpretations of the (first) て-form in the following sentence? 何かを犠牲にして、その上で、平和は成り立っている。 I'm having difficulties assigning a definite meaning to this sentence. There seems ...