語源. The study of the origin of words and the historical development of their meanings.

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2
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2answers
194 views

How to tell if a word is Sino-Japanese or Yamato

How can I tell if a word is Sino-Japanese (漢語), or Yamato (和語)? An answer to How 「えい」 should be pronounced in the words like 英語, 先生, etc? talks about the pronunciation of Sino-Japanese words and ...
13
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6answers
847 views

Are there any common Japanese words which were borrowed from Ainu or other indigenous languages?

I know plenty of Japanese words that came from English and a few from other European languages (obviously tons from Chinese), but what about words from Japan's indigenous languages such as Ainu? Also ...
3
votes
1answer
339 views

Why is the negative form of [べき] べからず?

On http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/should#part5, the author doesn't explain the etymology of べからず. Can anyone explain?
4
votes
2answers
202 views

How does the negative form of である get to be ではない?

http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/formal#part3 doesn't explain the reason clearly. Can anyone explain?
13
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2answers
440 views

Nouns exhibiting vowel fronting

As touched upon in another thread, there are several nouns that exhibit a kind of vowel shift in older forms, where the ending vowel is fronted when the noun is used on its own to become /i/ or /e/, ...
5
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1answer
218 views

What does 回 mean in 回答?

What does 回, the kanji for "turn", mean in 回答 "answer"?
1
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1answer
118 views

How did 真っ赤 came to mean “downright”? [duplicate]

We know that 真っ赤 means "deep red," but how did it come to mean 'downright', as in 真っ赤な嘘 (outright lie)?
2
votes
2answers
198 views

Is おふくろ related to ふく?

Since おふくろ is one way to address one's own mother, I was wondering whether the 「ふく」 part is related to the word meaning 'clothes' or not. And if not, what is the origin of おふくろ?
3
votes
1answer
379 views

What is the etymology of the word マラ?

Does anyone have an opinion on the etymology of the word マラ, a crude term for penis? Any thoughts on usage are also appreciated. (via archive.org) http://gogen-allguide.com/ma/mara.html
1
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1answer
130 views

Why did 摩羅 also come to mean penis? [duplicate]

Is there any further implication to be gleaned from this and how did this meaning come to be? Is there any suggestion that the male genitals are somehow an obstacle to enlightenment?
1
vote
2answers
120 views

Which grammar rules are applied when でいい is conjugated to nouns?

"ここに名前を書くだけでいいですか?" means "Is it ok to just write [my] name here?" I'm confused about where でいい comes from. http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/must#part5 is about conjugating ていい /でいい to ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Confused about the relationship between 「丸」 as in 「日本丸」 and 「麻呂」 as in 「君麻呂」

Firstly I found that 「丸{まる}」 originated from 「麻呂{まろ}」: 日本水路協会:船の名前にはなぜ「丸」が付くのか Then this answer said that 「麻呂{まろ}」 originated from 「おまる」: 古代日本人の名前についている 「~麻呂」 には何か意味があるのですか? It started to make me ...
7
votes
2answers
458 views

What is the etymology of the word バレる?

What is the etymology of the word バレる, and why is it often written with katakana? ばれる(P); バレる (v1,vi) to leak out (a secret); to be exposed (a lie, improper behaviour, etc.) (behavior) ...
3
votes
1answer
107 views

Etymology of モブ

In Japanese, モブ (short for モブキャラクター) refers to a character who plays a minor role in anime/manga/games - source. The same source claims that the etymology is 和製英語 and traces its origin to Japanese ...
7
votes
1answer
139 views

What does 八 have to do with [八つ当たり]【やつあたり】?

For the longest time, I had never seen yatsuatari written down. I always figured it was written 奴当たり, which I figured would have been derived from 「あの奴に当たる」 or something. Imagine my surprise when I ...
15
votes
5answers
2k views

Are there any old loanwords from Korean, especially any not written in katakana?

Given the close proximity and long history of interaction of various kinds within East Asia, the great influence of Chinese in both Japanese and Korean, and the similar structures of Japanese and ...
9
votes
1answer
769 views

What is the meaning/usage of いざ?

Will someone please explain what this word いざ means? I've found several definitions, but I'm very unclear on what it really means and its usage. I've heard it mostly in the following ways: ...
6
votes
2answers
306 views

Reading 九十九 as “tsukumo”

Why can 九十九 be read as "tsukumo"? I don't understand how those kanji could be read that way.
0
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0answers
65 views

Why does 意味のない mean meaningless? [duplicate]

Why does 意味のない mean meaningless? I can't make sense of it. How does の belong between a noun and ない?
4
votes
1answer
176 views

Why does 甲斐 use these particular kanji?

Inspired by a recent question about the proper way to write 生きがい, I wanted to ask a long-standing question. According to Kotobank, 甲斐 has the following definitions (my poor translations follow): かい ...
2
votes
1answer
177 views

What is the etymology of 森羅万象 and what does it mean?

I have come across this word a few times: 森羅万象{しんらばんしょう} If you look it up, you usually get something along the lines of: the creation the universe all nature I would like to know if ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

The etymology of 頭{あたま}金{きん}

頭金 means "initial deposit". The meaning of first Kanji is "head", the second - "money, gold". How to understand them both - etymology? "Head" + "money" seems not related.
5
votes
1answer
207 views

Significance of 「温」 in 「温故知新」

This question came to my mind while playing 漢字読めるカナ for Android to pass time. 温故知新 is a 4-character idiom from the 論語, Confucian Analects, meaning to learn from the past. It is a Chinese phrase* and ...
8
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1answer
179 views

Are 済む・澄む・住む cognate?

Which of these words are cognates (share a common etymology)? 住【す】む ("live") (rarely 棲む or 栖む) 澄【す】む ("clear") (rarely 清む) 済【す】む ("end") According gogen allguide and several dictionaries such as ...
10
votes
1answer
216 views

Old way of counting people?

I always found it funny how the counter for people, 人, has the special cases [一人]{ひとり}, [二人]{ふたり}, but then continues [三人]{さんにん}, [四人]{よにん}, ... However, this summer I came across a neat bit of info. ...
0
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1answer
86 views

What is the etymology of the word 杜撰(ずさん)?

Can this word be derived to original Japanese words or is it maybe, like the kanji might suggest, of Chinese origin?
3
votes
1answer
295 views

What is the etymology of 〜ません(でした)?

I have always been interested in the negative polite (〜ません) and negative past-polite (〜ませんでした) inflections of verbs. My understanding is that ます is an inflectable function word (助動詞), so I'm ...
4
votes
1answer
169 views

How did the originally honorific forms of address 君、お前、貴様 become informal or even insulting?

君 means ruler, お前 honourable one towards me, 貴様 worthy appearance. How did these originally honorific terms of address become informal or even insulting?
1
vote
1answer
104 views

What is the origin of スタンド meaning “desk lamp”?

I'm struggling to turn up any answers on why the word スタンド is used to mean "desk lamp". My guess would be that it's a case of metonymy, but I don't know.
7
votes
1answer
330 views

_っ_り form adverbs

I keep seeing these onomatopoeic adverbs popping up with the form: _っ_り. Some examples include ぐっすり、ぴったり、すっきり、etc…. Is there a name for these adverbs, and why are they in this specific form?
0
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0answers
40 views

Why are い and な conjugated differently? [duplicate]

With い adjectives, to conjugate the verb into positive, negative, present or past tense, you change the い to くない, かった or くなかった. But with な adjectives, you conjugate by changing です to ではありません, でした and ...
14
votes
5answers
463 views

What is the origin and usage of the word いい?

According to Denshi Jisho, いい and よい share the same kanji, and that both roughly mean "good". Why are there two different pronunciations despite the similarity, and what are some ways to figure out ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

Where does だらけ come from?

Where does the phrase だらけ come from? I only know だ as a copula and ら as a conditional marker or pluralizing suffix, are either of these at use in this phrase? My dictionary lists it as "implying ...
2
votes
1answer
242 views

Where does のみ come from?

I have recently heard that the phrase のみ means "only". Does it come from another compound, like の実 or something? I don't think that's necessarily where it came from, but I would be surprised if that の ...
8
votes
1answer
136 views

How did 参った come to mean 'defeated' from 参る?

I've heard the phrase 参った and understood it to mean something like 'I/we lost' or 'knocked out'. How did this come from 参る, to visit or go by? I read in a dictionary that it's some phrase said by a ...
2
votes
2answers
109 views

Etymological origin of -n in 洗 (セン)

I've always wondered why the 音読み of the kanji 洗 is セン when, in all Chinese topolects I'm aware of, the reading ends in a vowel. I always chalked this up to Japanese having borrowed a Middle Chinese ...
9
votes
2answers
455 views

Where does「えっと」come from?

I wanted to describe that 「えっと」 was similar to "Ummm" in English when someone is trying to think about what they are going to say, but I wasn't even sure if that was correct. Is that just a ...
4
votes
2answers
415 views

Is “フリーマーケット” sometimes assumed to be derived from “Free”?

Is the term "フリーマーケット" sometimes assumed to be derived from, or meaning, "Free market", as opposed to "Flea market"? (That is, having a false etymology) There is a phrase "Free market" in English, ...
4
votes
2answers
422 views

Why is the kanji for luck the same as to carry?

Why is the kanji for うん(運) the same as the kanji for 運ぶ? Did the kanji just somehow end up being the same, or were the two meanings related somehow? All I can think of is some kind of "carrying luck", ...
2
votes
1answer
113 views

The origins of なんだ as in 飲まなんだ or せなんだ

Even here in Osaka I don't hear it very often among anyone even remotely young, but where does this come from originally? Does anyone have a reference on hand? If I myself had to guess from what I ...
9
votes
3answers
489 views

Imperative used instead of conditional form

This quesion: と言っても vs とは言え . reminded me of a similar case: どっちにしても vs どっちにしろ which are also synonymous as far as I can tell. That got me thinking: Is this coincidental? Are there ...
11
votes
2answers
288 views

Why does 目 have a counting sense to it?

Why does 目 get used in situations like 二個目? How did it come about getting the meaning of eye as well as some counting meaning?
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Etymology of 出来る dekiru

An entry of Tae Kim's blog suggested that 出来る came from Chinese word 出来 that does have the nuance of potentiality, but the most recent visitor's comment claimed that the usage of 出来 in Chinese to show ...
11
votes
0answers
343 views

What is the etymology behind る in 日{ひ}/昼{ひる} and 夜{よ}/夜{よる}?

I noticed that there is this る coming up in 日{ひ}->昼{ひる} and 夜{よ}->夜{よる}. In addition, I haven't seen the forms with る used a lot in Classical Japanese, so the ones without る probably came first. What ...
3
votes
1answer
151 views

Etymology of 武蔵

What is the etymology of the old province and Japanese name 武蔵? Wikipedia claims that it is non-Yamato vocabulary from an Ainu language. Even if this is true, why were these characters ...
4
votes
1answer
216 views

What's the analysis for たりとも?

Quoth Edict, たりとも means "(not) even; (not) any", and is probably used as such: 一問たりとも答えられなかった。(even one question, cannot answer) Is たりとも made up of the individual portions たり ("such things as") ...
1
vote
1answer
120 views

Why is Typhoon Neoguri sometimes referred to as “ノグリー”?

Why is Typhoon Neoguri sometimes referred to in Japanese as "ノグリー", and not as "ネオグリー"? The English language Wikipedia's disambiguation page for Typhoon Neoguri mentions that it used to be referred ...
15
votes
1answer
831 views

Why do we say 頼もしい instead of 頼ましい?

In a previous question, I posted a list of adjectives produced from verbs using the しい suffix. In each example, it seems that しい attaches directly to the 未然形: 勇む  →  勇ま + しい    isam-a-sii 悩む  → ...
2
votes
2answers
234 views

「日焼{ひや}け」 is not representative of a means to nominalize verbs?

I was just thinking about the sunburn I will get during the upcoming 4th of July holiday. Then, I wondered if 「日焼{ひや}け」is a verb nominalization. If it is, I am not aware of such a pattern. Is it an ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

What is the etymology of the word Katsu?

I heard from an English man that the katsu karē (カツカレー) dish was from English inspiration originally: he told me that the word 'katsu' is coming from cutlet and 'karē' would be curry. Please can ...