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Both「目的」and「目標」have a common meaning which is "goal", but what is the difference?
When can we use one but not the other?

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Which dictionary did you check? Doesn't your dictionary say more than just "goal"? –  Tsuyoshi Ito Dec 18 '12 at 18:20
    
It was actually in my book. For example: まず無理のない目標を立てる。 If I use 「目的」instead of 「目標」 is the meaning of sentence going to change? 実は教科書に出てきた言葉なんです。例えば「まず無理のない目標を立てる」。もし「目標」のかわりに「目的」を使ったら意味が違うのでしょうか。 In my dictionary 目的; a purpose; 〔目標〕a goal, an objective; 〔ねらい〕an aim; 〔意図〕an intention 目標: 〔ねらい〕an aim; 〔最終目的〕a goal; 〔達成目標〕a target By the way I'm using mac osx Lion's dictionary –  Birkan Aras Dec 18 '12 at 18:34
    
Thanks. I do not have time to think about a proper answer right now, but here are some hints. (1) “目標を立てる” means “set a goal,” but “目的を立てる” is incorrect. (2) Another hint is in your dictionary: what is the difference between “purpose” and “goal”? –  Tsuyoshi Ito Dec 18 '12 at 19:19
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2 Answers

目的=目標+意味

I would think of a basic example.

I want to become better at shooting the basketball. => 目的
I will consider myself better at it when I score at least 50% of my shots. => 目標

I think 目的 is a high level image, global image of a goal. 目標 is more achievement like low level goal, usual can be quantified and explicit that will define the concrete steps to the 目的.

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目的 can also mean "purpose". There is a book called "The Purpose Driven Life". In Japanese, it's titled 人生を導く5つの目的.

I think it boils down to the difference in English between "purpose" and "goal". A goal is something finite you hope to achieve. A purpose is like a motivation for why you do something. Often they will overlap, but not always. Having a finite goal kind of implies that you have a motivation. However, the converse -- having a motivation implies you have a finite goal -- is not necessarily true.

Ex.

A: Why did you come to campus today?
B1: I came to visit my professor and get a letter of recommendation. → The goal and the motivation are the same: get the letter.
B2: I came to visit my professor. → The motivation of why I came to campus is to see my professor. However, there is nothing "achievable" just by visiting him.

So the same with the Japanese words. If you have a 目標 you also (likely) have a 目的. However, if you have a 目的, you do not necessary have a 目標.

That's how I see them anyway.

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