My question arose when I was trying to rationalise the first two sentences below. I wondered if these two verbs (越すand 越える） formed a pair with one transitive, one intransitive (like 消える & 消す）with を acting as a "spatial object marker" for the intransitive form (as in the sentence 「飛行機が空を飛ぶ」, 飛ぶ being an intransitive verb) but the dictionary entries and examples 3-5 below suggest they are both transitive verbs of similar meaning. (越す possibly has wider use.)
Could somebody familiar with these answer my question above and rationalise the sentences with these verbs below?
駅を乗り越す| go/ride past the stop
彼は門を乗り越えて庭に入ってきた｜He climbed over the gate into our garden.
川を越す｜cross a river
国境を越える｜cross the border
球はライトの頭上を越えた｜The ball sailed over the right fielder's head.
Bonus: what is the difference between these two verbs and 超える?
My answer to the bonus: I think that where as 越える is used for "crossing over/going past" when referring to tangible actions (and possibly compound verbs) such as those in the examples above, 超える refers to non-tangible abstract events such as exceeding a limit or crossing/transcending a generation:
- 支出が収入を超えた｜My expenses exceeded my income.
- 彼の作品は世代を超えて愛読されている｜His works are loved by people of all generations.
but confusingly the word for transcend is 超越 which used both!
Please correct me if I am wrong.