丁寧 (ていねい ) is an "na-adjective/adverb" with two meanings, (1) polite (as you know) and (2) careful or conscientous.
The second meaning can apply to the way something is made, prepared or wrapped. I imagine your friend was referring to the way the ramen was made but for food (in general) there could be situations when any one of those three could apply.
However, these two meanings shouldn't be considered to be completely unrelated. The following examples illustrate how when you are being polite, you are paying close attention to details to make special consideration for somebody, etc.
1. Polite/courteous sense 〔礼儀正しいこと／丁重で親切なこと〕
丁寧な口のきき方をする｜He has a polite manner of speaking.
彼は丁寧に名刺を受け取った｜He took my card courteously.
There is no warmth in his manner of speaking, but he is at least civil.
丁寧にさよならを言って出て行った｜Saying good-bye politely, he went out.
2 Careful, conscientious sense〔注意深い，念入りな〕
人形を丁寧に紙に包んだ｜She carefully wrapped the doll in paper.
彼は丁寧に説明してくれた｜He gave me a detailed explanation of it.
彼は何事も丁寧にする｜He is conscientious in everything.