Which dialects would one normally encounter when visiting/living in Japan (in popular places like Tokyo, Kyoto and and so on) or reading something produced in Japan?
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The biggest dialects that often come up are.
There are of course more, but these are the ones I Believe you have the highest chances of hearing during Japanese language study or TV watching
Mark Hosang already gave a good answer, so I'll only try to add more detail to it, and maybe generalize the dialect division some more.
It's hard to answer "how many dialects are commonly used", for two reasons:
Generally speaking, dialectal variation in Japanese is dying out, but some bigger regional dialects are still quite strong. The following big regional dialects are rather well-known:
I mean ウチナーグチ is often used. TV, music, food and other products, young people...etc. Of course Japanese is used most of the time, it's not like they use uchinaa guchi in everyday conversation. But the traditions stay and it's not a dying language. (at least not when I was there and not in what I've seen recently either when following local news and conversing with friends) Or maybe it's because I'm only acquainted with more traditional people and less average Okinawan (and like me they become old...)