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Specifically for when they mean "a little".
In what situations would they be used and are they completely interchangeable without any differences?

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Hmm the only difference I can think of is, ちょっと sounds more colloquial than 少し. –  Chocolate Aug 11 '12 at 15:49
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up vote 2 down vote accepted

It seems to be a lot about nuances.

You have someone talking about it on this page.

It says that you can replace 少し with ちょっと in most cases but it's less common the other way around. Then it lists few examples when the sentence does not convey exactly the same meaning based on which one you use.

One of the example is from a book and it talks about the difference between 「ちょっと待ってね」 and 「少し待ってね」. The first one would be an egoist way of asking the people to wait, a bit vague, term that would be convenient for you. The other one with 少し would be apparently more accurate, easier to rely on and let the other person more likely to feel at ease/trust with you.

An other example is a case when you cannot really use 少し instead if ちょっと. The example is 「ちょっと、わかんない。」.

I am not sure I fully understand myself but what I understood so far is that 少し, compared to ちょっと, is ちゃんとした言葉 compared to ちょっと that would be a bit 適当 (sorry I don't find the words to explain that in english). This difference would be reflected especially when you ask someone to do something.

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I don't agree with the explanation of the difference of ちょっと待ってね and 少し待ってね on that page. –  Chocolate Aug 17 '12 at 14:13
    
we should try it at work –  oldergod Aug 17 '12 at 14:50
    
Check out my explanation of 適当 here: howtojaponese.com/2009/11/18/cool-compound-tekitouni Also, ちょっと、わかんない seems like a different usage - the comma makes it sound like it's an interjection rather than an adverb that modifies わかる. –  How to Japanese Aug 27 '12 at 15:52
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To a certain extent they are just different levels of politeness. Check the following:

ちょっと待って!
少し待ってください
少々お待ちください

少々(しょうしょう)> 少し > ちょっと

The phrases get longer the more polite they are. Also, I believe ちょっと is more of a spoken phrase than a written phrase.

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