Take the 2-minute tour ×
Japanese Language Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for students, teachers, and linguists wanting to discuss the finer points of the Japanese language. It's 100% free, no registration required.

Consider the following:

  • A, B and C came:

    1. AとBとCが来た
    2. AやBやCが来た
    3. AにBにCが来た

What do I need to consider when deciding which of the three (と, や, に) to use?

I think a large portion is determined by the type of verb used. I shall generalise into two groups:

  1. Reciprocal type - marry; meet; be similar
  2. Non-reciprocal type - see; walk; be interesting

Ambiguity may result from using listing particles with reciprocal type verbs:

  • AとBが結婚した (Ambiguous)

    • A and B got married (to each other)

    • A and B got married (independent instances)

  • AやBが結婚した (Not ambiguous)

    • A and B got married (independent instances among others (example-giving nuance of や))

But for these cases:

  • AにBが結婚した
  • AにBが会った

Can they receive listing interpretation similar to AにBにCが来た?
Will に be forced to be dative?

How about when the sentence is rearranged to:

  • BがAに結婚した
  • BがAに会った

Can this receive a listing interpretation?
Will に be forced to be dative?

share|improve this question
    
I don't think AにBにCが来た is correct. –  oldergod Jul 2 '12 at 8:22
1  
Unfortunately, there seems to be very little discussion of the usage of に in a list, at least that I can find. One paper I found (pdf) says に is used for an increasing list, as in 1本の大根に2本のにんじん. There's also another paper that is titled promisingly (about all 3, と, や, and に, in fact), but is apparently behind a pay wall. (FWIW, I also like sawa's answer.) –  SomethingJapanese Jul 2 '12 at 9:52
    
@SomethingJapanese 1本の大根に2本のにんじん、えーと、それからトマトも (three items) is one continuous expression, I think. Without それからトマトも, I think it degrades. –  sawa Jul 2 '12 at 10:03
add comment

1 Answer

up vote 2 down vote accepted

I have the feeling that under the relevant usage is used adverbially and implies "remembering the item one after another while listing", and I think it requires at least three items. Two is too short for remembering one after another.

 AにBにCが来た
?* AにBが来た
 AにBにCが結婚した
?* AにBが結婚した

結婚する cannot have a dative argument, and I guess the structure of AにBにCが結婚する is Aに[Bに[Cが結婚する]] "C will get married, in addition to B, in addition to A", rather than [AにBにCが]結婚する, so it cannot have the reciprocal interpretation. BがAに結婚した is completely ungrammatical.

If you wanted to do a listing interpretation for 会う, which takes a dative argument, then you can do this:

AにBに(それに)CがDに会った (A, B: listing interpretation, D: dative)
'A, and B, and also C, met D'
AがBにCに(それに)Dに会った (B, C: listing interpretation, D: dative)
'A met B, and C, and also D'

share|improve this answer
    
The examples for definition 4 (並助, at the bottom) of the goo entry for に would suggest that two items (AにB) can be sufficient. –  SomethingJapanese Jul 2 '12 at 8:43
    
@SomethingJapanese What I meant was for the listing interpretation of the 並立助詞. For paring interpretations, two is suffient: 豚に真珠, which I think is close to dative usage. In your link definition 4, the first one has three items. Then there are paring ones, and finally a classical one, which is irrelevant for present Japanese. –  sawa Jul 2 '12 at 8:50
    
I edited to include 会う in the question (because it can take a dative argument and would be a better candidate for comparing). –  Flaw Jul 2 '12 at 9:47
    
@Flaw I edited. –  sawa Jul 2 '12 at 10:11
add comment

Your Answer

 
discard

By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.