Take the 2-minute tour ×
Japanese Language Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for students, teachers, and linguists wanting to discuss the finer points of the Japanese language. It's 100% free, no registration required.

Can you use -なくて instead of -ないで in the following sentence, keeping the same meaning? What's the difference between ないで and なくて ?

病気になると、一切化学薬品や抗生物質を使わないで、鍼や指圧や漢方薬で直します。風邪の時は何もしないで暖かくして、寝ているだけです。

share|improve this question
    
Also you may want to include ~なく, ~ないし and ~ずに in the question. –  Flaw Jun 20 '12 at 13:11
    
Which instance of 〜ないで? Are you meaning both/either of them? –  istrasci Jun 20 '12 at 14:19
    
Might as well be both of them. But I figure it's the version of -ないで that is analogous to -なくて. –  dotnetN00b Jun 20 '12 at 14:22

1 Answer 1

Peter Sells (1995) calls ないで as verbal gerund and なくて as adjectival gerund. When you have participial constructions, they do not make difference, but Sells notices that only the verbal gerund can be selected by an auxiliary verb:

食べないでおいた
* 食べなくておいた (Sells 1995:287)

Similarly to that, when you want to use these forms adverbially as in your examples, you have to use ないで. You cannot replace it with なくて. If you do so, they would be interpreted as participial constructions.

何もしないで暖かくする (ambiguous)
'not do any activity, and keep the body warm'
'keep the body warm by not doing any activity'

何もしなくて暖かくする (unambiguous)
'not do any activity, and keep the body warm'
* 'keep the body warm by not doing any activity'

Other than that, I do not know of a difference.


Sells, Peter (1995) "Korean and Japanese Morphology from a Lexical Perspective" Linguistic Inquiry 26.2 MIT Press

share|improve this answer
    
+1 for bibliography –  Matt Jun 21 '12 at 4:54

Your Answer

 
discard

By posting your answer, you agree to the privacy policy and terms of service.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.