Yes, 一杯 is also used for "conceptually" full. As far as I know, 一杯 can work as an adjective, adverb or noun, and easily correlates to the english "full." However, when you used "filled," you are using a verb, and in those sentences perhaps another word would work better (I do not know if all emotions/mental states can be used with 一杯) . Though I can imagine a competent sentence constructed using 一杯 to approximate the meaning you are expressing with "filled," there are other expression and words that would work better. As a word of advice, it is not so helpful to seek direct correlations between words of languages as disparate as English and Japanese.
"Full of anger" is one phrase that correlates nicely to the Japanese 怒りに満ちて［でいっぱいになって］いる
彼の心はくすぶる怒りと復讐心でいっぱいだった。He was full of smouldering anger and revengefulness.
Other related common words:
目一杯 【めいっぱい】 (adj-na,adv,n) with all one's might
精一杯(P); 精いっぱい 【せいいっぱい】 (n-adv) with all one's might;
その速さで精一杯ですか。 Is that as fast as you can go?
腹一杯(P); 腹いっぱい 【はらいっぱい】 (adv,n) bellyful; full stomach; to one's heart's content;
力一杯(P); 力いっぱい 【ちからいっぱい】 (n-adv) with might and main; with all one's strength;
彼は力いっぱい引っ張ったが、岩はびくともしなかった。He pulled with all his strength but the rock would not move.
元気一杯; 元気いっぱい 【げんきいっぱい】 (adj-na,adv,n) brimming with health (vigor); full of vitality; full of health
手一杯; 手いっぱい 【ていっぱい】 (adj-na,n) having one's hands full; not having any room to do more; at the limit
彼は砂を手いっぱいにすくいあげた。 He scooped up sand by the handful.