I am a student of (roughly intermediate) Mandarin Chinese, so not the proper Chinese speaker you're looking for, but I might just know enough of the original vocab here to offer an opinion.
With the aid of the English translation you gave, I was able to guess (although not confidently enough to post at the time) something like
一個鍋貼...飯一鍋貼...二拿 before you updated the question with the origin, but it wasn't easy and I wouldn't have understood if I'd just heard it spoken in real life. The
鍋貼兒 that presumably led to
コーテル instead of
コーティエ was confusing for me as I studied in Taiwan where
兒 (giving an "er" sound) is commonly omitted in cases like this.
I'm baffled in particular by the pronunciation of
焼. I guess "hui" isn't easy to convert to the Japanese syllabary, but my
電子辞書 at least gives
ホイ as a guide, which seems slightly clearer.
Other things that stood out were
個 -> ガー, where
ガ would seem more appropriate given the tonelessness of the character, and
鍋貼兒 -> コーテル, where a better conversion might be
グオーティアル. The numbers
リャン were by far the most recognisable.
So incomprehensible? When spoken in real life, probably. When written down, maybe just about decipherable for someone with a working knowledge of Chinese and the Japanese syllabary and a lot of patience. Stupid/funny? I have no idea.
In terms of learning them, I wonder if it might be similar to the way I learn Japanese borrowed words from European languages other than English, which by their nature tend to sound similar to the English equivalent. For me this makes them easier to identify when reading or listening, but almost as hard as any other word to remember the correct spelling and pronunciation (for example my recent misspelling of
コーヒー which you corrected for me).
Apologies for any mistakes I may have made, particularly related to the Chinese language. Please correct them if you see them!