In "宿題をしなくてはいけなかった" meaning "Had to do homework.", is the word "いけなかった" derived from "いける" (verb conjugation) or from "いけない" (i-adjective conjugation)?
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It's the past form of いけない, which in turn is the negative form of いける:
Like with any verb, the negative form of いける behaves like an い-adjective.