I know that within an informal/familiar setting, people often leave out particles. Whether or not this is grammatically correct I'm not positive, but for the sake of this question, I'll say that it's not.
What I'm talking about are modified nouns without particles that seem to be grammatically correct. Furthermore, I've never seen them with particles, and the particle-less form seems to be the only one. Here are a few that seem to be accepted as particle-less ("accepted" meaning I've found these exact forms in at least one dictionary).
父なる： 父なる神様 → Father God / God the Father
聖なる： 聖なる人々 → (a) holy people
単なる： 単なる過失 → a simple/mere mistake
Here are some others that I've seen/heard before, but not sure if these forms are accepted as particle-less, or if they are just informally left out (could not find any of these exact forms in the dictionaries I have).
息ある： 息あるもの → living things ("thing that are breathing")
影響ある： 影響ある政治家 → an influential politician
力ある： 力ある人 → a powerful/strong person
My question is, why are certain expressions like this accepted as not having particles? How did they become this way? Are there many expressions like these in additions to the ones I put? Is there some type of rule that governs when an expression can acceptably leave out the particle?
Or am I wrong about the whole thing?
Update: some other examples I remembered:
内なる： 内なる人 → Our inner-self; the person we are on the inside
大【おお】いなる： 大いなる功績 → a great achievement