There are loads of word in Japanese which end in 込む, like 吸い込む, 読み込む, 入り込む, 打ち込む, 売り込む, 送り込む, 押し込む. How does adding ー込む change the meaning? What is the meaning that links all these words?
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込む by itself can be interpreted as a intransitive verb to mean "jammed in", "packed in", "crowded". For example 電車が込む
However, when 込む is used with compound verbs it can have 3 different interpretations.
Usually it means to do something more thoroughly, completely, or intensely.
Sometimes it can also be like adding "into" after the verb: 押す, "to push" becomes 押し込む, "to push into."
The examples given by the OP are pretty clear-cut, and covered well by Amanda's answer. Where 〜込む can get difficult is in the verbs that don't directly relate to an action.
For example, 思い込む, per Amanda's explanation, would mean to "think thoroughly, completely, intensely, or to be packed in"... not exactly intuitive for the exact meaning of "to wrongly convince oneself of/talk oneself into something".