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In my understanding, the で following 日本女性 could correspond here to the english "of," or "speaking of." Thus one interpretation of this sentence (though in unnatural english) could be:

Speaking of Japanese women, seeing someone put makeup on in the train makes me embarrassed and uncomfortable.

Is this interpretation correct?

For the sake of comparison, here are two other interpretations of this sentence made more natural. Hopefully the meaning does not differ greatly.

When I see Japanese women putting makeup on in the train I feel so embarrassed and uncomfortable

Seeing Japanese women putting makeup on in the train makes me embarrassed and uncomfortable.

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The most likely interpretation is that this is short for であり, or であって. This usage of the stem (連用形) or te-form is usually translated as and in English (although there are significant differences).

'a person who is a Japanese woman and puts makeup on the train'

Another possibility is that this is short for のうちで 'within, among'.

'among Japanese women, those who put makeup on the train'

Your quotation is probably taken from a very conservative and somewhat nationalist person who thinks that Japanese women are (expected to be) more elegant and well behaving than women living in other areas. If this is the case, then the first of the interpretations that I gave is the correct one.

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