These two dialects will sound very similar to an untrained ear. Can anyone highlight the main differences between these two dialects?
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According to this Chiebukuro question, there isn't that much of a difference in accents or words/phrases, and it's mainly the differences in the negative forms of
However, it should be noted that there is some overlap and some people in Kyoto use the Osaka forms and vice-versa.
Here are a few other notable differences mentioned:
Links which might be useful:
(I'm mainly translating this because I wanted to know more myself so there are probably errors, but it's CW so feel free to edit/add to this!)
Syockit already suggests in the answer, but to expand on this, consonant-ending verbs take different negative forms:
Negative forms (WRITE-NEGATION)
Since the negative form of Osaka dialect is confusing with the potential form, Osaka dialect prefers the long form potential form.
Negative potential forms (WRITE-POTENTIAL-NEGATION)
What I see often is that Kyoto-ben has this emphasis expression "～え" sentence ending, like "ええお天気どすえ", "いきまっせ!" (ますえ contracted to まっせ), while Osaka-ben will use "～で" sentence ending, like "そないあほなことすると怪我するで。気をつけなあかんで。". Osaka is more likely to use わ ending.
Also, some verbs like 来ない are pronounced differently: Kyoto is きいへん while Osaka is けえへん (or was it the other way around? What about こおへん?)
I'd say the most prominent difference is the intonation, i.e. the one that literally catches your ear first, is the intonation. Osaka-ben (and Kansai-ben in extension) has almost opposite accent patterns compared to Tokyo-ben (and Kanto-ben in extension).
For instance, the word 橋 (bridge) and 箸 (chopsticks) are both written はし in Hiragana, but are pronounced with a different accent. This doesn't always make them easy to distinguish, however, since a Kantou-ben speaker would say the first with an H-L pattern (first syllable in a high tone, the second syllable in a lower tone) and the second with an L-H pattern, while for an Kansai-ben speaker it would be exactly the opposite!